Elevated alpha fetoprotein
, no hepatocellular carcinoma.
After birth and in early infancy, alpha fetoprotein
levels are elevated due to the synthesis in the fetal liver (normal range in neonate, 17200-44350 ng/mL).
Between pregnancy biological variability of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein
and free beta hCG: implications for Down syndrome screening in subsequent pregnancies.
Li et al., "Alpha fetoprotein
is a novel protein-binding partner for caspase-3 and blocks the apoptotic signaling pathway in human hepatoma cells," International Journal of Cancer, vol.
Histologically, the tumor can be difficult to diagnose, although elevated levels of alpha fetoprotein
can facilitate its identification.
An English study found that measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin was a much better test for detecting the presence of Down's syndrome than methods currently used -- measuring unconjugated estriol and alpha fetoprotein
. These older tests have a detection rate of approximately 30 percent, while screening for human chorionic gonadotrophin would detect over 60 percent of effected pregnancies.
The study also emphasizes on the importance of clinical presentation, median age at presentation and evaluation of raised titres of serum alpha fetoprotein
levels in hepatoblastoma.
Further imaging showed 11 cm hepatic mass, with normal alpha fetoprotein
. She underwent partial hepatectomy and is doing well since then.
Types of screening covered include maternal serum alpha fetoprotein
(AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), acetylcholinesterase (AchE), dimeric inhibin A (DIA), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A).
Complete blood count, liver function test, total protein, Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio, serum Albumin, HBsAg, anti HCV, alpha fetoprotein
, ultrasound guided liver biopsy, ultrasound whole abdomen and/or CTscan Abdomen for size and number of tumour were also done.
A diagnosis of extra gonadal primary yolk sac was made Serum hormone assays were performed including beta-HCG and alpha fetoprotein
. Former was within normal reference range but latter showed a raised level of 759.7 IU/ml (normal 0.5-5.5 IU/ml) confirming the diagnosis of yolk sac tumour.