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particleSee elementary particles.
a member of a lexical-grammatical class of words that express the attitude of the speaker toward an utterance and that may be used to produce certain grammatical forms. An auxiliary part of speech, the particle is not a sentence part.
Particles exist in many languages, and the Slavic languages have a rather extensive system. In Russian, particles are divided into several semantic-functional types. Syntactic particles are used in the formation of the subjunctive, imperative, and optative moods (by, pust’, da, davai, davaite). Negative particles include tie and ni. Subjective modal particles modify the sense of other words or entire sentences; they include intensive particles (ved’, dazhe, -to, zhe), emphatic particles (toi’ko, lish’), interrogative particles (razve, neuzheli, li), and exclamatory particles (kak, chto zd). Particles are also used as affixes in the formation of pronouns and adverbs (koe-, -libo, -nibud’, -to).
REFERENCESGrammatika sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo iazyka. Moscow, 1970.
Vinogradov, V. V. Russkii iazyk, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1972.
V. A. VINOGRADOV