where: n is Safety factor, [S.sub.a] is

Alternating stress, [S.sub.m] is Mean stress, [S.sub.e] is Endurance strength, [S.sub.y] is Yield strength.

The maximum

alternating stress is 249.24MPa produced at the fastening area of the bellow.

Some automotive components, like engine blocks and cylinder heads, experience more than [10.sup.8]

alternating stress cycles during their service life.

Figure 6 shows an

alternating stress versus mean stress plot for the LCV leaf spring.

That is, to constrain a length of iced wire, using eccentric vibrator to produce an incentive displacement to form a local vibration, the

alternating stress and displacement are generated, to make ice break off from the wire, so as to realize the deicing of the icing line.

The

alternating stress was varied to find the fatigue life, while the mean stress was kept constant.

In the lifetime assessment, the

alternating stress against the mean stress determines the fatigue damage of a mechanical component, as determined with the Haigh's Mean Stress Diagram.

In this approach, for the investigated Fe--Cu condensates we obtain [[sigma].sub.T] [approximately equal to] 1.8 GPa at T = 20[degrees]C, which is an order of magnitude lower than the maximum amplitude of the applied

alternating stress.

Step 4: Calculate the fatigue factor of safety by comparing the equivalent

alternating stress to the fatigue failure strength.

The main aim of the project is to determine the Von Misses stresses, Shear stresses, Maximum Principle stress, Equivalent

Alternating stress, Total Deformation, Fatigue Analysis and Optimization in the existing Connecting rod.

The amplitude of the reversed charge pulse is not enough to provide cell membrane breakdown, but it produces high

alternating stress on the cell membrane, causing structural fatigue.

To calculate the fatigue resistance of the stents, Clune used Goodman plots which compute mean stresses and the magnitude of

alternating stress. These were plotted on a chart for a sample of locations within the stent.