(CCL-246) were purchased from the cell bank of ATCC.
There was an approximately 50-fold increase in reactive oxygen species production, and a significant inhibition of phagocytosis with exposure of alveolar macrophages
to a sublethal 0.5 percent ECVC/nfECVC.
Holmes, "Alveolar macrophages
from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are deficient in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic airway epithelial cells," Immunology and Cell Biology, vol.
Eberhardt et al., "Impaired innate immune alveolar macrophage
response and the predilection for COPD exacerbations," Thorax, vol.
Neutrophils (PMNs) are rapidly recruited from the circulation to the infected airway by cytokines and chemokines produced by alveolar macrophages
(Draper et al.
The precise mechanisms by which alcohol impairs alveolar macrophage
immune function have yet to be elucidated; however, several observations indicate that the macrophages are subjected to an altered environment characterized by oxidative stress and zinc deficiency.
Cell viability was measured in vitro for human alveolar macrophages
using MTS assays.
We see ample evidence of inflammation associated with nanoparticle exposure through the respiratory tract, in terms of elevated WBC, aggregation of alveolar macrophages
and neutrophils, and increased cytokines and LDH in the BALF [11, 13, 14].
Sugiyama, "Impaired inflammatory responses to multiple Toll-like receptor ligands in alveolar macrophages
of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice," Inflammation Research, vol.
If the magnitude of exposure is low, and if the fibers are removed by alveolar macrophages
, alveolar inflammation resolves.
However, similar to the effects observed in rats that chronically consume alcohol, dietary zinc supplementation restored GM-CSF signaling and alveolar macrophage
phagocytic function in rats that were HIV-1 transgenic (Joshi et al.
The results showed that the levels of blood serum nicotine, alveolar macrophage
, hexanoyl-lysine and spleen lymphocytes were kept low in the group fed with the kale-added feed.