Alveolar sacs are the ends of the respiratory tree and the smallest respiration units.
These included alveolus models comprising a single hemisphere attached to a duct (i.e., respiratory bronchiole) [11-16], an alveolar duct with multiple alveoli (i.e., alveolated duct) [17, 18], and space-filling-based models with honeycomb or polygonal structures (i.e., terminal alveolar sacs) [19-23].
Epidemiologically, the deposition of bacilli into alveolar sacs is the most common route of Mtb infection following an inhalation.
Indeed, there is a substantial evidence for interactions between alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages in alveolar sacs .
Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that 5 days after ARDS induction, numbers of alveolar sacs, an index of lung parenchyma integrity, was the lowest in untreated ARDS, increased progressively and significantly across the ARDS + SW, ARDS + Mito, and ARDS + SW + Mito groups, and was the highest in the SC group.
This extends our earlier findings [26, 28-30, 34, 36, 37] and may explain why lung injury scores (i.e., increased septal thickness and decreased number of alveolar sacs) and exudate leakage from lung parenchyma are reduced in ARDS animals treated with SW plus mitochondrial therapy.
Adult tucuxi left lung photomicrograph (HE); B: Photomicrograph of the detail of adult tucuxi (HE) left lung; C: Adult bronchodilator (HE) photomicrograph; D: Photomicrograph of detail of the presence of myoelastic sphincters in the adult tucuxi lung (HE); E: Photomicrograph of adult tucuxi alveolar sacs
(SEM); F: Photomicrograph of the alveolar walls of adult boto alveolar sacs
H & E staining (Figures 2(A)-2(C)) demonstrated that the number of alveolar sacs
was significantly lower in group 2 than that in groups 1 and 3 and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 1 (Figure 2(D)).