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Sac and Fox

Sac and Fox, closely related Native Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Sac and Fox culture was of the Eastern Woodlands area with some Plains-area traits (see under Natives, North American). For a long period they dwelt around Saginaw Bay in E Michigan, but in the early 17th cent. they were driven from this area by the allied Ottawa and Neutral groups. The Sac (also commonly written Sauk) and the Fox fled N across the Strait of Mackinac, then S into present Wisconsin. Thus in 1667, when visited by Father Claude Jean Allouez, they were settled around Green Bay in NE Wisconsin. They then numbered some 6,500.

The Sac were enterprising farmers but spent much time hunting and raiding, although they never developed a soldier society to the degree that the Fox did. The Fox were fierce warriors and constantly waged war with the Ojibwa. Together, the Sac and Fox fought wars against the Sioux and the Illinois, as well as the French. The French, harassed by the Fox, waged a war of extermination; by 1730 they had reduced the Fox to a mere handful. The remnants of the tribe incorporated with their long-standing allies, the Sac, and from that time the two tribes have been known collectively as the Sac and Fox.

After a war with the Illinois (c.1765), the Sac and Fox moved into Illinois territory. In 1804 a fraudulent treaty was extracted from them, and they were told to move west of the Mississippi. Most of them refused to go, but by 1831 they were induced to cross the river into Iowa. By 1832, however, they were back east of the river, attacking frontier settlements. This started the Black Hawk War. After that war they moved west, eventually settling on reservations in Iowa, Kansas, and Oklahoma. In 1990 there were about 4,775 Sac and Fox in the United States.

Bibliography

See W. T. Hagan, The Sac and Fox Indians (1958); F. O. Gearing, The Face of the Fox (1970).

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sac

[sak]
(biology)
A soft-walled cavity within a plant or animal, often containing a special fluid and usually having a narrow opening or none at all.
(mapping)
Indentation in the contour lines of equal depth showing submarine relief.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sac

a pouch, bag, or pouchlike part in an animal or plant
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

SAC

1. An early system on the Datatron 200 series.

[Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959)].
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)
References in periodicals archive ?
This extends our earlier findings [26, 28-30, 34, 36, 37] and may explain why lung injury scores (i.e., increased septal thickness and decreased number of alveolar sacs) and exudate leakage from lung parenchyma are reduced in ARDS animals treated with SW plus mitochondrial therapy.
Pulmonary alveoli are composed of a myriad of alveolar sacs arranged in a fractal manner.
A more complex and physiologically realistic model was then developed that contained 45 alveolar sacs. Airflow and particle deposition in this model were compared to the simplified 4-alveoli (or 4-sac) model to determine the feasibility of using simplified alveolar models for inhalation dosimetry predictions and to evaluate the impact from gravitational orientation and inhalation depth.
To facilitate later reference to the four alveolar sacs, the upper alveolus was termed as Sac 1, the lower alveolus as Sac 4, and the left and right alveoli as Sac 2 and Sac 3, respectively (Figure 1(a), left panel).
Adult tucuxi left lung photomicrograph (HE); B: Photomicrograph of the detail of adult tucuxi (HE) left lung; C: Adult bronchodilator (HE) photomicrograph; D: Photomicrograph of detail of the presence of myoelastic sphincters in the adult tucuxi lung (HE); E: Photomicrograph of adult tucuxi alveolar sacs (SEM); F: Photomicrograph of the alveolar walls of adult boto alveolar sacs (arrow) (SEM).
Another important finding in the present study is that histopathological analysis demonstrated significant reduction in the number of alveolar sacs and notably elevated crowded score in the lung parenchyma of hypoxia-treated animals compared to those in the sham controls.
Indeed, there is a substantial evidence for interactions between alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages in alveolar sacs [2].
Macrophages are the predominant "professional" immune cell population in the distal lung, in which the alveolar epithelia are physical and functional barriers to maintain the integrity of alveolar sac, as well as play a crucial role in the clearance of environmental insults by initiating and expanding local host defense mechanisms [5, 21, 22].