sarcoma

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sarcoma

(särkō`mə), highly malignant tumor arising in connective- and muscle-cell tissue. It is the result of oncogenes (the cancer causing genes of some viruses) and proto-oncogenes (cancer causing genes in human cells). It may affect bone, cartilage, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and skin. See cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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; neoplasmneoplasm
or tumor,
tissue composed of cells that grow in an abnormal way. Normal tissue is growth-limited, i.e., cell reproduction is equal to cell death. Feedback controls limit cell division after a certain number of cells have developed, allowing for tissue repair
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.

Sarcoma

 

a malignant tumor that consists of connective tissue. Mesenchymomas, which are sarcomas made up of embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyma), are distinguished from sarcomas made up of mature tissues of mesenchymal origin, for example, bone sarcomas (osteosarcomas), cartilaginous sarcomas (chondrosarcomas), vascular sarcomas (angiosarcomas), hematopoietic sarcomas (reticulosarcomas), muscular sarcomas (leiomyosarcomas, rhabdosarcomas), and sarcomas of skeletal nerve tissue (gliosarcomas).

Sarcomas constitute about 10 percent of all malignant tumors; they occur relatively more often in some African and Asian countries. The most common sarcomas are bone tumors and tumors of soft tissues, including muscular, vascular, and nerve tissues. Sarcomas of the hematopoietic organs occur less frequently. Histomorphologically, there are round-cell, polymorphocellular (sometimes giant-cell), and spindle-cell sarcomas, all of which differ in the shape and size of the cells, and fibrosarcomas, in which fibrous elements predominate over cellular elements.

All malignant tumors are characterized by growing into and destroying surrounding tissues; this property is especially pronounced in sarcomas. The early stages of cancers differ from the early stages of sarcomas; cancers metastasize to the nearest lymph nodes, while sarcomas usually spread by way of the bloodstream and frequently metastasize to remote organs.

The principles and methods of diagnosis, preventive measures, and treatment of sarcomas are the same as those used for other malignant tumors.

REFERENCE

Klinicheskaia onkologiia. Edited by N. N. Blokhin and B. E. Peterson, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1971.

L. M. SHABAD

sarcoma

[sär′kō·mə]
(medicine)
A malignant tumor arising in connective tissue and composed principally of anaplastic cells that resemble those of supportive tissues.

sarcoma

Pathol a usually malignant tumour arising from connective tissue
References in periodicals archive ?
Bernstein, "A proposed explanation for female predominance in alveolar soft part sarcoma: noninactivation of X; autosome translocation fusion gene?" Cancer, vol.
The entity of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) was first described by Christopherson et al.
The rare histologic types are alveolar soft part sarcoma, malignant hemangiopericytoma, extraskeletal osteosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and synovial sarcoma.
Alveolar soft part sarcoma most commonly presents between the ages of 10 and 35 years, with women being diagnosed on the average at 20 to 22 years and men at 27 to 30 years.
Alveolar soft part sarcoma has a distinctive and characteristic, nested or organoid growth pattern.
<BJessica Robson died in 2014, four years after being diagnosed with alveolar soft part sarcoma
Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor that typically occurs in young patients and harbors a TFE3 gene rearrangement with ASPL on chromosome 17q25--the same gene fusion present in a large proportion of Xp11 tRCC.
JSA was set up by Cramlington's Jessica Robson before she died from alveolar soft part sarcoma aged 18 last May, and has been taken on by mum Julie, dad Trevor and sister Nicole in an effort to raise awareness of the condition and support other ill children in the North East.
JSA was set up by Cramlington's Jessica Robson before she died from alveolar soft part sarcoma aged 18 last May and has been taken on by mum Julie, dad Trevor and sister Nicole in an effort to raise awareness of the illness and support other ill children in the North East.
Fusion protein products resulting from recurrent translocations may also be useful markers, such as STAT6 for solitary fibrous tumor and TFE3 for alveolar soft part sarcoma and a subset of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
JSA was set up by Cramlington's Jessica Robson before she died from alveolar soft part sarcoma aged 18 last May, and has been taken on by her family to raise awareness of the condition and support other ill children locally.
Jessica died in May, aged 18, after a near four-year battle with alveolar soft part sarcoma.