This is an inhibitory circuit driven by amacrine
cells, whose appearance and numbers vary among individuals and species.
(1988) Retinal bipolar cells receive negative feedback input from GABAergic amacrine
Together, the two neurobiologists have demonstrated what is also suspected for amacrine
cells in the mammalian retina: It is possible that numerous isolated microcircuits exist in a single nerve cell.
Styrene-induced changes in amacrine
retinal cells: an experimental study in the rat.
It protected striatal cells in culture cells against quinolinic acid excitotoxicity (24) and retinal amacrine
neurons against AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in vivo via CB1 receptor mechanism (25).
Retinal radial serial sections (10 mm thick) were obtained by a cryomicrotome (Kryostat 1720, Leitz Wetzlar) to localize the RGCs, excluding the displaced amacrine
cells of the inner plexiform layer.
"There are 50 kinds of amacrine
cells, the drug cabinets of the retina, and most of them likely release multiple neurotransmitters that can influence the retinal circuit," Diamond said.
The INL includes the nuclei of the bipolar, horizontal, amacrine
, and Muller cells.
Famiglietti, '"Starburst" amacrine
cells and cholinergic neurons: mirror-symmetric on and off amacrine
cells of rabbit retina', Brain Research, vol.
Instead of the the eye's bipolar, horizontal and amacrine
cells, which process the information gathered by the rods and cones, the electronic retina has "signal transfer gates, memories, logic gates and driver circuits,' each on its own silicon layer.
This procedure enables only the RGCs be located, thus excluding the displaced amacrine
In addition, neural abnormalities such as morphological alterations in astrocytes, decreased cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine
cells, and increased inflammatory leukocytes have also been observed in this model [10, 17, 68, 69].