amacrine cell


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Related to amacrine cell: bipolar cell

amacrine cell

[′am·ə‚krēn ‚sel]
(anatomy)
An interneuron located in the inner plexiform layer of the vertebrate retina that influences retinal signal processing in response to visual stimuli at the level of contact between the bipolar and ganglion cells.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Abbreviations: AC: amacrine cell; BC: bipolar cell; CI: the correlation index; Fs GC: Fast-sustained GC; Ft GC: Fast-transient GC; GABA: [gamma]-amino butyric acid; GC: ganglion cell; MFQ: mefloquine; Ms: Medium-sustained GC; Mt GC: Medium-transient GC; PCA: the principal component analysis; PSTH: the peri-stimulus time histogram; PTX: picrotoxin; RCC: the raw cross-correlogram; RF: the receptive field; SC: the shift predictor correlogram; Ss GC: Slow-sustained GC; STA: the spike-triggered average; St GC: Slow-transient GC; V1: primary visual cortex.
Furthermore, different populations of Isl1-containing cells located in the inner nuclear layer (INL) could be distinguished by both morphological and topographical features: (i) a small population of cells with the major axis oriented parallel to the vitreal surface, lying at the border between the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the INL, in the horizontal cell layer (Figures 2(b) and 2(c)); (ii) a population of cells located in the middle of the INL, in the bipolar cell layer (Figures 2(b), 2(c), 2(e), 2(f), 2(h), and 2(i)); and (iii) a small population of cells located at the inner edge of the INL, in the region where the amacrine cells are normally found (Figures 2(b), 2(c), 2(e), 2(f), 2(h), and 2(i)).
Wassle, "Morphological and physiological properties of the A17 amacrine cell of the rat retina," Visual Neuroscience, vol.
Since in the highest density areas of avian retinas (Bravo & Pettigrew) the RGCs become smaller and distributed into multiple sublayers, as also reported previously (Coli et al.), the authors refer to the study of RGCs density by radial retinal sections to also identify the deeper RGCs and to distinguish them from the displaced amacrine cells.
Barber, "Loss of cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rat and Ins2Akita-diabetic mouse retinas," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.
Promoter Specificity Strength of Off-target labelling for RGCs expression in RGCs Muller glia CMV + +++ Amacrine cells Bipolar cells Muller glia CAG + ++++ Amacrine cells Bipolar cells SYN1 +++ ++ Amacrine cells Nefh ++++ +++ Thy1 ++++ ++ Mcp-1 ++ +++ injured cells Promoter Size (bp) % of AAV cargo References (508-800) (10-17%) CMV [10-14] (584-1132) (12-24%) CAG [15-17] SYN1 (400-469) (8-10%) [20, 21] Nefh (2251) (48%) [22] Thy1 (6500) (exceeds limit) [23] Mcp-1 560 (mouse only) (12%) [24]
The other is lateral interaction pathway, comprising local feedback circuits from horizontal cells back to photoreceptors and from amacrine cells back to bipolar cells.
The intervening layers incorporate several types of cell with large dendritic arbors, divided into horizontal cells that control for different illumination conditions and feedback to the receptor and bipolar cells and amacrine cells that feed into the center-surround organization of the Retinal Ganglion Cells.
For example, it is known that the amacrine cells of the retina, which are presynaptic of the ganglion cells, fire independently.
They note: "Deletion of GSK3ss resulted in ss-catenin stabilization and MG proliferation without retinal injury," and that, "Intriguingly, after gene transfer of ss-catenin or Lin28, a subset of cell-cycle-reactivated MGs express markers for amacrine cells, a type of retinal interneurons."