In 2006, an outbreak occurred among two Hmong ([dagger]) families in Minnesota who consumed Amanita bisporigera; this mushroom produces amatoxin
, which is associated with gastrointestinal distress, liver failure, and high mortality.
Treatment of amatoxin
poisoning: 20-year retrospective analysis.
Most of the cases reported from upper Assam are amatoxin
Phalloides contains amatoxin
, which can cause acute liver failure and death.
tigrinus slightly more toxic than Cortinarius speciosissimus and Cortinarius orellanus with L[D.sub.50] values of 2.0 g/kg and 3.2 g/kg, respectively  but less toxic compared to the 10 mg lethal dose of Amanita phalloides amatoxin
reported by Patowary .
phalloides produces 2 types of toxins: phallotoxins and amatoxin
. The phallotoxins are not absorbed from the gut and are believed to be responsible for the nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
However, a postmortem found Brian, a student at Galway/Mayo Institute of Technology, died of liver failure due a toxic reaction to amatoxin
which is found in another type of fungi.
The hepatotoxic agents like pyrrolizidine alkaloids and plants producing these, aflatoxins and amatoxin
of Amantia phalloides have been associated with acute onset hepatopathy (30).
Prompt identification of mushroom-related toxic symptoms in the ED and early, aggressive IV volume replacement are critical first steps in diminishing the significant morbidity and mortality associated with amatoxin
Unfortunately, these mushrooms have no unique smell or taste characteristics, and cooking does not destroy the two types of cyclic oligopeptide toxins, the amatoxin
and the phallotoxins.
Creative Biolabs provides transcription toxins such as amatoxins
(targeting RNA polymerase II) and thailanstatin A (targeting spliceosome) as ADC payloads.
The principal toxins (amatoxins
) are taken up by hepatocytes and interfere with messenger RNA synthesis, suppressing protein synthesis and resulting in severe acute hepatitis and possible liver failure.