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(āmĕn'ərē`a, əmĕn'–), cessation of menstruationmenstruation,
periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17).
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. Primary amenorrhea is a delay in or a failure to start menstruation; secondary amenorrhea is an unexpected stop to the menstrual cycle. It is caused by dysfunctioning of the pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, and hypothalamus, by surgical removal of the ovaries or uterus, by medication, or by emotional trauma. The result is an inadequate amount of body fat, calories, and protein to sustain menstruation. Female athletes have a higher than average rate of menstrual dysfunction, particularly amenorrhea, but the long-term effects of the exercise-related disorders are not known. It is also common among anorexics. The lack of estrogen, however, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Hormonal deficiencies over prolonged periods of time, particularly in combination with poor diets, may cause luteal phase deficiency and hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, which may last a long time. Methods of treatment include oral contraceptives or estrogen-progestin therapy.



the absence of menstruation. As a physiological phenomenon it is found in girls until the time of sexual maturity, among pregnant and lactating women, and in older women after the climacteric. In all other cases, the condition indicates some form of illness.

A distinction is made between primary amenorrhea, in which no menstruation has ever occurred in the individual, and secondary amenorrhea, in which menstruation previously took place and has ceased. Amenorrhea is associated with disruption of the ripening of the follicle and formation of the corpus luteum; it may be brought on by acute or chronic infection, disease of the endocrine glands, neuro-psychiatric disorders (“war amenorrhea,” for example), cardiovascular or blood disease, and so forth. The condition may result from X-ray or radioactive irradiation of the ovaries, chronic poisoning (for example, by alcohol, nicotine, or lead), exhaustion (from hunger, undereating, or malnutrition), extreme adiposis, and so forth. In some women amenorrhea makes its appearance accompanied by extreme fatigue, either physical or mental, as in the case of students at the time of examinations. Amenorrhea may be the result of artificial abortion or of cauterization of the uterine mucous membrane with iodine or other remedies.

The condition may ensue from developmental defects in the reproductive organs (such as lack of an opening in the hymen) or from scars of the vagina or cervix uteri following trauma. Menstrual blood accumulates in the vagina, uterus, and uterine tubes and then cannot be expelled from the body; this is known as false amenorrhea.

Frequently amenorrhea produces no marked subjective disorders, but severe cases may lead to metabolic changes (adiposis or sometimes loss of weight), depression, or unpleasant sensations such as congestion or vertigo.

Finding proper treatment requires determination of the basic causes of the condition, and treatment is directed toward elimination or mollification of the causes. Effective diet, long rest periods in the fresh air, climatotherapy, and therapeutic exercises are the prescribed forms of therapy. Emotional disturbances should be removed. Hormone preparations are frequently prescribed.


Vikhliaeva, E. M. “K voprosu gormonoobrazovatel’noi funktsii iaichnikov u zhenshchin v klimaktericheskom periode.” In Fiziologiia i patologiia menstrual’noi funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Kvater, E. I. Gormonal’ naia diagnostika i terapiia ν akusherstve i ginekologii, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1967. “Osnovnye formy anomalii menstrual’noi funktsii.” In Osnovy en-dokrinologicheskoi ginekologii. Moscow, 1966.



Absence of menstruation due to either normal or abnormal conditions.
References in periodicals archive ?
As reported as the research in 2006, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothalamic amenorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, and ovarian failure were the most common causes of amenorrhea; in addition, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is responsible for 20–35% of secondary amenorrhea cases.
The Turner syndrome is caused by the absence of 1 set of genes from the short arm of 1 X chromosome and presents with characteristic physical abnormalities such as short stature, amenorrhea due to ovarian failure, retruded mandible, ptosis, low hair line, low-set ears, webbed necks, renal structural anomalies, and other congenital malformations usually without mental retardation.
The present study revealed a rare de novo sex autosome translocation in a female with primary amenorrhea.
Specifically one patient had amenorrhea, five had clinical metropathia haemorrhagica & two had menorrhagia.
Thyroid dysfunction is a common consideration when the menstrual cycle is abnormal, and we normally attribute heavy periods to hypothyroidism and amenorrhea or irregular periods to hyperthyroidism.
Amenorrhea is classified as either primary (failure to achieve menarche) or secondary, which is the cessation of menses for 3 months or more.
12,13) Nevertheless, recent calculations show that the mean duration of postpartum insusceptibility to pregnancy (the period of combined amenorrhea and abstinence) lies between 15 and 20 months in most Sub-Saharan African countries.
Healthcare company Therapeutics Inc (NYSE MKT:TXMD) reported on Friday the launch of the SPRY Trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TX 12-002-HR for the treatment of secondary amenorrhea in women.
Four years prior to examination the patient was diagnosed with secondary amenorrhea from her medical physician.
Amenorrhea is one symptom of the Female Athlete Triad.