amenorrhea


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amenorrhea

(āmĕn'ərē`a, əmĕn'–), cessation of menstruationmenstruation,
periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17).
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. Primary amenorrhea is a delay in or a failure to start menstruation; secondary amenorrhea is an unexpected stop to the menstrual cycle. It is caused by dysfunctioning of the pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, and hypothalamus, by surgical removal of the ovaries or uterus, by medication, or by emotional trauma. The result is an inadequate amount of body fat, calories, and protein to sustain menstruation. Female athletes have a higher than average rate of menstrual dysfunction, particularly amenorrhea, but the long-term effects of the exercise-related disorders are not known. It is also common among anorexics. The lack of estrogen, however, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Hormonal deficiencies over prolonged periods of time, particularly in combination with poor diets, may cause luteal phase deficiency and hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, which may last a long time. Methods of treatment include oral contraceptives or estrogen-progestin therapy.

Amenorrhea

 

the absence of menstruation. As a physiological phenomenon it is found in girls until the time of sexual maturity, among pregnant and lactating women, and in older women after the climacteric. In all other cases, the condition indicates some form of illness.

A distinction is made between primary amenorrhea, in which no menstruation has ever occurred in the individual, and secondary amenorrhea, in which menstruation previously took place and has ceased. Amenorrhea is associated with disruption of the ripening of the follicle and formation of the corpus luteum; it may be brought on by acute or chronic infection, disease of the endocrine glands, neuro-psychiatric disorders (“war amenorrhea,” for example), cardiovascular or blood disease, and so forth. The condition may result from X-ray or radioactive irradiation of the ovaries, chronic poisoning (for example, by alcohol, nicotine, or lead), exhaustion (from hunger, undereating, or malnutrition), extreme adiposis, and so forth. In some women amenorrhea makes its appearance accompanied by extreme fatigue, either physical or mental, as in the case of students at the time of examinations. Amenorrhea may be the result of artificial abortion or of cauterization of the uterine mucous membrane with iodine or other remedies.

The condition may ensue from developmental defects in the reproductive organs (such as lack of an opening in the hymen) or from scars of the vagina or cervix uteri following trauma. Menstrual blood accumulates in the vagina, uterus, and uterine tubes and then cannot be expelled from the body; this is known as false amenorrhea.

Frequently amenorrhea produces no marked subjective disorders, but severe cases may lead to metabolic changes (adiposis or sometimes loss of weight), depression, or unpleasant sensations such as congestion or vertigo.

Finding proper treatment requires determination of the basic causes of the condition, and treatment is directed toward elimination or mollification of the causes. Effective diet, long rest periods in the fresh air, climatotherapy, and therapeutic exercises are the prescribed forms of therapy. Emotional disturbances should be removed. Hormone preparations are frequently prescribed.

REFERENCES

Vikhliaeva, E. M. “K voprosu gormonoobrazovatel’noi funktsii iaichnikov u zhenshchin v klimaktericheskom periode.” In Fiziologiia i patologiia menstrual’noi funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Kvater, E. I. Gormonal’ naia diagnostika i terapiia ν akusherstve i ginekologii, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1967. “Osnovnye formy anomalii menstrual’noi funktsii.” In Osnovy en-dokrinologicheskoi ginekologii. Moscow, 1966.

A. L. KAPLAN

amenorrhea

[¦ā‚men·ə′rē·ə]
(medicine)
Absence of menstruation due to either normal or abnormal conditions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Secondary amenorrhea was considered when menstruation has previously occurred but then stopped for a period of [greater than or equal to] 6 consecutive months.
The study is the first to comment on amenorrhea rates in women below 50.
Molecular subtypes were identified according to St Gallen 2013(18): [Luminal A: ER (+) and PR ([greater than or equal to]20%), Ki 67 <20%, Luminal B: ER (+), PR (<20%) and/or Ki 67 [greater than or equal to]20% and/or Her 2 (+), Her 2 over: ER(-), PR(-) and Her2 (+), Triple-negative: ER(-), PR(-), Her 2(-)].In this study, amenorrhea lasting at least six months within two years after the start of chemotherapy was accepted as CIA.
"Ulipristal at 5 mg and 10 mg were well tolerated and superior to placebo in rate of and time to amenorrhea in women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas," the authors write.
Amenorrhea, or the absence of menses, and anovulation, the absence of ovulation, are not always synonymous.
At this visit, the patient reported continued amenorrhea, lower abdominal pain, and frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Hertweck listed five benchmarks that indicate primary amenorrhea requiring evaluation.
Secondary amenorrhea, which is defined as 3 months of absence of menstruation, occurs in approximately 3–5% of adult women.
The prevalence of menstrual side effects such as amenorrhea in patients on risperidone is reported to be 1-10% (6).
We emphasize the importance of karyotype analysis in patients with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea. Prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy should be kept in mind for 5-a reductase deficiency in patients reared as girl to prevent the development of gonadal malignancy.
Balanced Reciprocal Translocation t(X;1) in a Girl with Tall Stature and Primary Amenorrhea. Iran J Med Sci.