amenorrhea

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Related to amenorrhoea: Oligomenorrhoea

amenorrhea

(āmĕn'ərē`a, əmĕn'–), cessation of menstruationmenstruation,
periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17).
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. Primary amenorrhea is a delay in or a failure to start menstruation; secondary amenorrhea is an unexpected stop to the menstrual cycle. It is caused by dysfunctioning of the pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, and hypothalamus, by surgical removal of the ovaries or uterus, by medication, or by emotional trauma. The result is an inadequate amount of body fat, calories, and protein to sustain menstruation. Female athletes have a higher than average rate of menstrual dysfunction, particularly amenorrhea, but the long-term effects of the exercise-related disorders are not known. It is also common among anorexics. The lack of estrogen, however, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Hormonal deficiencies over prolonged periods of time, particularly in combination with poor diets, may cause luteal phase deficiency and hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, which may last a long time. Methods of treatment include oral contraceptives or estrogen-progestin therapy.

Amenorrhea

 

the absence of menstruation. As a physiological phenomenon it is found in girls until the time of sexual maturity, among pregnant and lactating women, and in older women after the climacteric. In all other cases, the condition indicates some form of illness.

A distinction is made between primary amenorrhea, in which no menstruation has ever occurred in the individual, and secondary amenorrhea, in which menstruation previously took place and has ceased. Amenorrhea is associated with disruption of the ripening of the follicle and formation of the corpus luteum; it may be brought on by acute or chronic infection, disease of the endocrine glands, neuro-psychiatric disorders (“war amenorrhea,” for example), cardiovascular or blood disease, and so forth. The condition may result from X-ray or radioactive irradiation of the ovaries, chronic poisoning (for example, by alcohol, nicotine, or lead), exhaustion (from hunger, undereating, or malnutrition), extreme adiposis, and so forth. In some women amenorrhea makes its appearance accompanied by extreme fatigue, either physical or mental, as in the case of students at the time of examinations. Amenorrhea may be the result of artificial abortion or of cauterization of the uterine mucous membrane with iodine or other remedies.

The condition may ensue from developmental defects in the reproductive organs (such as lack of an opening in the hymen) or from scars of the vagina or cervix uteri following trauma. Menstrual blood accumulates in the vagina, uterus, and uterine tubes and then cannot be expelled from the body; this is known as false amenorrhea.

Frequently amenorrhea produces no marked subjective disorders, but severe cases may lead to metabolic changes (adiposis or sometimes loss of weight), depression, or unpleasant sensations such as congestion or vertigo.

Finding proper treatment requires determination of the basic causes of the condition, and treatment is directed toward elimination or mollification of the causes. Effective diet, long rest periods in the fresh air, climatotherapy, and therapeutic exercises are the prescribed forms of therapy. Emotional disturbances should be removed. Hormone preparations are frequently prescribed.

REFERENCES

Vikhliaeva, E. M. “K voprosu gormonoobrazovatel’noi funktsii iaichnikov u zhenshchin v klimaktericheskom periode.” In Fiziologiia i patologiia menstrual’noi funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Kvater, E. I. Gormonal’ naia diagnostika i terapiia ν akusherstve i ginekologii, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1967. “Osnovnye formy anomalii menstrual’noi funktsii.” In Osnovy en-dokrinologicheskoi ginekologii. Moscow, 1966.

A. L. KAPLAN

amenorrhea

[¦ā‚men·ə′rē·ə]
(medicine)
Absence of menstruation due to either normal or abnormal conditions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patients developed amenorrhoea, which persisted throughout the period of hormone administration, and most of them experienced considerable to complete relief of their symptoms.
Cimicifuga racemosa, synonymous with Actaea racemosa (black cohosh), now widely employed for the treatment of hot flushes, made its way into the Eclectic Dispensary in 1852 as a highly regarded treatment for amenorrhoea (Duke 1985), having been adopted by the European colonists from the native Americans; the Cherokee and Iroquois people for 'gynecopathy (diseases peculiar to women) and rheumatism' (McKenna 2001).
The results from Phase II studies have been relatively encouraging [23,24] and small Phase III studies have also been reported [25] which would indicate that the GnRH analogues may result in a lower rate of amenorrhoea and menopause in those women who receive them in relation to cytotoxic chemotherapy.
One 29-year-old woman from the low-dose group who was subsequently treated with the high dose for 20 weeks in the open-label extension to the trial developed amenorrhoea.
8) Amenorrhoea here refers to absence of menstruation for any reason, including post-partum period, pregnancy, menopause, or any reason causing lack of menstruation in the three months preceding the survey.
Kasis and Igbesias (23) described a condition known as female athlete triad characterized by eating disorder, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis.
A RESEARCH shows women can suffer from post pill amenorrhoea or lack of periods/ovulation for a year after stopping the pill.
Cytogenetic analysis of patients with primary and secondary amenorrhoea in Hong Kong: retrospective study.
A 28-year-old unbooked woman, gravida 3, para 2 + 0, presented to the gynaecological outpatient department at Kamla Nehru Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India, with a history of amenorrhoea for 5 months and pain in the abdomen for 5 days.
POI refers to ovarian failure with at least 4 months of amenorrhoea and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in the menopausal range on two occasions within a 4 - 6-week interval, in women younger than 40 years of age.
Amenorrhoea is the medical term for the absence of menstrual periods, when you're not producing eggs and so cannot conceive.