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(āmĕn'ərē`a, əmĕn'–), cessation of menstruationmenstruation,
periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17).
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. Primary amenorrhea is a delay in or a failure to start menstruation; secondary amenorrhea is an unexpected stop to the menstrual cycle. It is caused by dysfunctioning of the pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, and hypothalamus, by surgical removal of the ovaries or uterus, by medication, or by emotional trauma. The result is an inadequate amount of body fat, calories, and protein to sustain menstruation. Female athletes have a higher than average rate of menstrual dysfunction, particularly amenorrhea, but the long-term effects of the exercise-related disorders are not known. It is also common among anorexics. The lack of estrogen, however, may contribute to the development of osteoporosis. Hormonal deficiencies over prolonged periods of time, particularly in combination with poor diets, may cause luteal phase deficiency and hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, which may last a long time. Methods of treatment include oral contraceptives or estrogen-progestin therapy.



the absence of menstruation. As a physiological phenomenon it is found in girls until the time of sexual maturity, among pregnant and lactating women, and in older women after the climacteric. In all other cases, the condition indicates some form of illness.

A distinction is made between primary amenorrhea, in which no menstruation has ever occurred in the individual, and secondary amenorrhea, in which menstruation previously took place and has ceased. Amenorrhea is associated with disruption of the ripening of the follicle and formation of the corpus luteum; it may be brought on by acute or chronic infection, disease of the endocrine glands, neuro-psychiatric disorders (“war amenorrhea,” for example), cardiovascular or blood disease, and so forth. The condition may result from X-ray or radioactive irradiation of the ovaries, chronic poisoning (for example, by alcohol, nicotine, or lead), exhaustion (from hunger, undereating, or malnutrition), extreme adiposis, and so forth. In some women amenorrhea makes its appearance accompanied by extreme fatigue, either physical or mental, as in the case of students at the time of examinations. Amenorrhea may be the result of artificial abortion or of cauterization of the uterine mucous membrane with iodine or other remedies.

The condition may ensue from developmental defects in the reproductive organs (such as lack of an opening in the hymen) or from scars of the vagina or cervix uteri following trauma. Menstrual blood accumulates in the vagina, uterus, and uterine tubes and then cannot be expelled from the body; this is known as false amenorrhea.

Frequently amenorrhea produces no marked subjective disorders, but severe cases may lead to metabolic changes (adiposis or sometimes loss of weight), depression, or unpleasant sensations such as congestion or vertigo.

Finding proper treatment requires determination of the basic causes of the condition, and treatment is directed toward elimination or mollification of the causes. Effective diet, long rest periods in the fresh air, climatotherapy, and therapeutic exercises are the prescribed forms of therapy. Emotional disturbances should be removed. Hormone preparations are frequently prescribed.


Vikhliaeva, E. M. “K voprosu gormonoobrazovatel’noi funktsii iaichnikov u zhenshchin v klimaktericheskom periode.” In Fiziologiia i patologiia menstrual’noi funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Kvater, E. I. Gormonal’ naia diagnostika i terapiia ν akusherstve i ginekologii, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1967. “Osnovnye formy anomalii menstrual’noi funktsii.” In Osnovy en-dokrinologicheskoi ginekologii. Moscow, 1966.



Absence of menstruation due to either normal or abnormal conditions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since our patient showed very few of the above mentioned complications including amenorrhoea, and went into remission after induction with chemotherapy, she should be enrolled for long term surveillance for regular blood counts with peripheral smears, serum oestrogen and progesteron, U/S abdomen and pelvis, and risk factor reduction strategy should be modeled.
36,37] Endocrinological effects like Amenorrhoea and lactation were seen in amisulpride group and had been seen in previous studies.
Table 1: Signs and Symptoms of Hyperprolactinemia * Gynaecomastia * Galactorrhoea * Infertility * Menstrual irregularities: oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea * Sexual dysfunction: decreased libido, impaired arousal, impaired orgasm * Acne and hirsutism in women (due to relative androgen excess compared with low estrogen levels) * Behavioural effects * Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) which may lead to increased risk of osteoporosis.
Since ovulation itself is difficult to identify, the reliable estimate of the end of amenorrhoea is the return of menstruation itself.
Diagnosis of the MRKH patients is usually delayed until adolescence where primary amenorrhoea and / or difficulty in attempting sexual intercourse suggest diagnosis.
Although the sample size of the group with secondary-training amenorrhoea was very small (N = 4), non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-tests were performed to examine possible differences between players with secondary-training amenorrhoea and those without.
The inclusion criteria were: female patients aged 18-42 years having infertility, oligomenorrhoea / amenorrhoea, obesity, hirsutism and ultrasonographic features of PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria.
A 25-year-old primigravid woman with eight months of amenorrhoea presented with history of a fall at home, six hours before admission to the emergency department of our hospital.
A 22 year old female primi gravida, married for two years, presented in the ward with 32 weeks amenorrhoea and right infraumbilical abdominal swelling without any history of prior medical checkup.
On the basis of the NIH meeting in 2003, any two of the three are sufficient to confirm the diagnosis of PCOS: (1) specific morphology of polycystic ovaries in ultrasonogaphy findings, (2) hyperandrogenism (biochemical or clinical), and (3) oligo- or amenorrhoea.