amino sugar


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Amino sugar

A sugar in which one or more nonglycosidic hydroxyl groups is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group. The most abundant example is d -glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy- d -glucose) [see illustration].

Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)enlarge picture
Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)

A linear polymer of N-acetyl- d -glucosamine is widely distributed as chitin, the exoskeletal material of arthropods. The glycoproteins of higher animals, which are components of the proteoglycans of cartilage and skin, consist of polysaccharides that are generally sulfated and have N-acetylated glucosamine or galactosamine alternating with a uronic acid.

Amino sugars are important constituents of glycoproteins and oligosaccharides involved in biological recognition. Amino sugars of the greatest structural diversity are found in microorganisms as constituents of cell walls, in antigenic carbohydrates produced at the cell surface, and as antibiotic substances secreted from the cell. Streptomycin is the first demonstrated example of numerous amino-sugar-containing antibiotics produced notably by Actinomycetes (bacteria). See Chitin, Glycoprotein, Oligosaccharide, Polysaccharide

amino sugar

[ə¦mē·nō ¦shu̇g·ər]
(biochemistry)
A monosaccharide in which a non-glycosidic hydroxyl group is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group; an example isD-glucosamine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Amino sugar N is strongly associated with microbial activity, commonly limited by high carbon to nitrogen ratios in soils.
Bellanato, "Protection of the amino group of amino sugars by the acylvinyl group: part I, glycoside formation by the fischer reaction," Carbohydrate Research, vol.
Jones, "Free amino sugar reactions in soil in relation to soil carbon and nitrogen cycling," Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.
Suppliers of these products point to the growing body of research that suggests the naturally occurring amino sugar glucosamine plays a significant role in building joint-cushioning cartilage.
The two scientists have found the supply of available nitrogen in soil is related to amino sugar nitrogen, which occurs in soil microorganisms.
Taking Glucosamine sulphate, which is an amino sugar and one of the building blocks of cartilage, will, after a few months, help to ease joint problems.
Glucosamine, an amino sugar, is used to form tendons, ligaments, cartilage (collagen is the main protein) and joint fluids (synovial fluid).
Recent research, however, reveals that the naturally occurring amino sugar glucosamine plays a significant role in building joint-cushioning cartilage.
Glucosamine, for example, is an amino sugar that occurs naturally in the body and plays a role in building the the cartilage that cushions joints.
GLUCOSAMINE sulphate is an amino sugar and is one of the building blocks of cartilage.