Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
ammonium group,in chemistry, a positively charged nitrogen atom joined by single bonds to four other atoms or groups. The simplest ammonium group, NH4+, is formed by protonationprotonation
, in chemistry, addition of a proton to an atom, molecule, or ion. The proton is the nucleus of the hydrogen atom; the positive hydrogen ion, H+, consists of a single proton.
..... Click the link for more information. of ammoniaammonia,
chemical compound, NH3, colorless gas that is about one half as dense as air at ordinary temperatures and pressures. It has a characteristic pungent, penetrating odor.
..... Click the link for more information. , NH3, e.g., by its reaction with hydrogen chloride, HCl, to form ammonium chloride, NH4Cl, an ammonium compound. Organic ammonium compounds are formed by the reaction of an alkyl halide with an amine (see amino groupamino group,
in chemistry, functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom attached by single bonds to hydrogen atoms, alkyl groups, aryl groups, or a combination of these three. An organic compound that contains an amino group is called an amine.
..... Click the link for more information. ), for example, ethyl chloride, C2H5Cl, reacts with triethylamine, (C2H5)3N, to form tetraethyl ammonium chloride, (C2H5)4N+Cl−. They are also formed by reaction of an amine with a mineral acid or by reaction of an alkyl halide with ammonia.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/