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Sac and Fox

Sac and Fox, closely related Native Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Sac and Fox culture was of the Eastern Woodlands area with some Plains-area traits (see under Natives, North American). For a long period they dwelt around Saginaw Bay in E Michigan, but in the early 17th cent. they were driven from this area by the allied Ottawa and Neutral groups. The Sac (also commonly written Sauk) and the Fox fled N across the Strait of Mackinac, then S into present Wisconsin. Thus in 1667, when visited by Father Claude Jean Allouez, they were settled around Green Bay in NE Wisconsin. They then numbered some 6,500.

The Sac were enterprising farmers but spent much time hunting and raiding, although they never developed a soldier society to the degree that the Fox did. The Fox were fierce warriors and constantly waged war with the Ojibwa. Together, the Sac and Fox fought wars against the Sioux and the Illinois, as well as the French. The French, harassed by the Fox, waged a war of extermination; by 1730 they had reduced the Fox to a mere handful. The remnants of the tribe incorporated with their long-standing allies, the Sac, and from that time the two tribes have been known collectively as the Sac and Fox.

After a war with the Illinois (c.1765), the Sac and Fox moved into Illinois territory. In 1804 a fraudulent treaty was extracted from them, and they were told to move west of the Mississippi. Most of them refused to go, but by 1831 they were induced to cross the river into Iowa. By 1832, however, they were back east of the river, attacking frontier settlements. This started the Black Hawk War. After that war they moved west, eventually settling on reservations in Iowa, Kansas, and Oklahoma. In 1990 there were about 4,775 Sac and Fox in the United States.


See W. T. Hagan, The Sac and Fox Indians (1958); F. O. Gearing, The Face of the Fox (1970).

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A soft-walled cavity within a plant or animal, often containing a special fluid and usually having a narrow opening or none at all.
Indentation in the contour lines of equal depth showing submarine relief.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a pouch, bag, or pouchlike part in an animal or plant
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


1. An early system on the Datatron 200 series.

[Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959)].
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References in periodicals archive ?
Baby Katie Glasshouse, who was born inside her amniotic sac Helen Smith
Baggieri added that while such special cases maybe observed in every 80,000 or 100,000 natural births, they almost never happen during C-section births because scalpels used during the surgery, typically tends to puncture the amniotic sac. However, en-caul births never pose any threats to the lives of the baby in question or the mother.
* If you notice that 30 minutes after the amniotic sac appears, there's little less than a peek of feet, check for signs of distress with the help of an 08 sleeve and lube.
Dr Ross Welch, a former president of the International Foetal Medicine and Surgery Society, said: "Operating on babies who are supposed to be immersed in water (in the amniotic sac) is a difficult process and that is why it is so important to have this carefully choreographed team approach."
"In November, when my wife was five months pregnant, she got a rupture in the amniotic sac," said her heartbroken husband, who asked to remain anonymous.
The entire amniotic sac containing the fetus protruded through uterine isthmic breach and about 800 mL hemoperitoneum was detected and drained.
"One of the biggest risks in performing surgery on fetuses is not the surgical procedure itself, but the insertion of a fetal scope through the amniotic sac, which is very fragile," Diederik Balkenende, Ph.D., said.
The cells spontaneously developed some of the same structural and molecular features seen in a natural amniotic sac, which is an asymmetric, hollow ball-like structure containing cells that will give rise to a part of the placenta as well as the embryo itself.
Once a mammalian egg is fertilized and begins dividing, the new cells segregate into two groups: those that will develop into the embryo and those that will develop into supportive tissues like the placenta and amniotic sac.
Once a mammalian egg is fertilized and begins dividing, the new cells segregate into two groups: those that will develop into the embryo and those that will develop into supportive tissues like the placenta and amniotic sac. Because this division of labor happens relatively early, researchers often can't maintain cultured cell lines stably until cells have already passed the point where they could still become either type.
Another publication by Gupta and coauthors presented a report about prolapse of amniotic sac through a vesicouterine fistula at 22 weeks of pregnancy [12].