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"&" ASCII character 38.

Common names: ITU-T, INTERCAL: ampersand; amper; and. Rare: address (from C); reference (from C++); bitand; background (from sh); pretzel; amp.

A common symbol for "and", used as the "address of" operator in C, the "reference" operator in C++ and a bitwise AND operator in several programming languages.

UNIX shells use the character to indicate that a task should be run in the background.

The ampersand is a ligature (combination) of the cursive letters "e" and "t", invented in 63 BC by Marcus Tirus as shorthand for the Latin word for "and", "et".

The word ampersand is a conflation (combination) of "and, per se and". Per se means "by itself", and so the phrase translates to "&, standing by itself, means 'and'". This was at the end of the alphabet as it was recited by children in old English schools. The words ran together and were associated with "&". The "ampersand" spelling dates from 1837.

Take our word for it.


The ampersand (&) normally means "and" as in Jones & Company. However, in the computer world, it is used in various ways. In Windows, it is used as a code to precede an underlined character. As a result, in some input dialogs, you have to enter a double ampersand (&&) to actually define a single ampersand.

In programming, a double ampersand is used to represent the Boolean AND operator such as in the C statement, if (x >= 100 && x >= 199).

In HTML, the ampersand is used to code foreign letters and special characters such as the copyright and trademark symbols. See ampersand codes and address operator.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ampersand was joined in this investment by the Boston Community Venture Fund.
Founded as a spinoff from PaineWebber more than 20 years ago, Ampersand has raised more than $900 million in committed capital.
David Parker, a General Partner at Ampersand Ventures added, "Ampersand is very pleased to have the opportunity to invest in Ortho Organizers, which has a strong brand name, well-established operations, loyal customers and a dedicated team of employees.
DiGiusto told IBO that ESA plans to add an acquisition strategy to complement its internal development strategy and that Ampersand Ventures' interest in the company lies with its tools for metabolism detection in early drug development and its point-of-care diagnostic products.
The acquisition of Ampersand assets continues our long-term planning for synergistic purchases that can help Recoton's growth," said Recoton's president, Robert Borchardt.
Dulude served as a General Partner the Ampersand funds, and remains in a Venture Partner role with the firm.
He brings a depth of industry knowledge and leadership experience that will be essential as we look to grow the business through internal investment as well as strategic acquisitions," said David Parker, General Partner at Ampersand.
Both council officers were clear that Cllr Jones had not asked for or expected any preferential treatment for Ampersand.
Ampersand Ventures, a private equity firm focusing on investments in the health care and industrial technology sectors, has acquired a stake in Signature Genomic Laboratories, LLC.
June 2, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, Accuratus Lab Services (Accuratus) and its principal owner, Ampersand Capital Partners (Ampersand), announced the acquisition of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) operation of Array BioPharma Inc.
Cllr Jones, who works in freelance PR, had started work for Liverpool firm Ampersand on a freelance basis just a few days before the meeting in September.
a leading provider of clinical research services to the global pharmaceutical industry, announced that it has partnered with private equity investors Ampersand Ventures and SV Life Sciences in conjunction with the company's expansion strategy.