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amphetamine (ămfĕtˈəmēn), any one of a group of drugs that are powerful central nervous system stimulants. Amphetamines have stimulating effects opposite to the effects of depressants such as alcohol, narcotics, and barbiturates. They raise the blood pressure by causing the body to release epinephrine, postpone the need for sleep, and can reverse, partially and temporarily, the effects of fatigue. Amphetamines enhance mental alertness and the ability to concentrate, and also cause wakefulness, euphoria, and talkativeness. Benzedrine is the trade name for the drug amphetamine; dextroamphetamine is marketed as Dexedrine. Methamphetamine, a potent stimulant marketed as Desoxyn, is the most rapidly acting amphetamine. They are available by prescription for limited uses; illegal sources include stolen or diverted supplies or clandestine laboratories.


Prescription amphetamines have been used for short periods of time in weight-control programs to suppress appetite and to treat narcolepsy. They were used as vasoconstrictors in inhalant therapy to shrink nasal mucous membranes in such conditions as nasal allergies and asthma; now such inhalants have been banned because of their toxicity. For unknown reasons, amphetamines have a paradoxically calming effect on some hyperactive children, but the use of these drugs to treat such children has been controversial.

Amphetamine Abuse

Popularly known as bennies, crank, speed, pep pills, wakeups, or uppers, amphetamines are addictive and easily abused: users can become psychologically dependent on the drugs and, developing a tolerance for them, can require increasingly large doses (see drug addiction and drug abuse). When the drugs wear off, a long period of sleep ensues, often followed by hunger and depression, which can lead to further use of amphetamines. Amphetamine addiction has been common among such diverse groups as truck drivers, students, and athletes, who have used the drugs for increased energy, alertness, or endurance. Methamphetamine, made from ephedrine and other chemicals in clandestine laboratories in the the United States or Mexico, experienced a resurgence in use in the United States beginning the mid-1990s, and its abuse also has increased worldwide. Amphetamines are inhaled, taken orally, or injected; as with other injected drugs, needle sharing increases the risk of contracting the AIDS virus. One form of methamphetamine, “ice,” is smoked. For law enforcement purposes in the United States, most amphetamines are grouped with such drugs as cocaine and morphine because of the similarity in their effects, medical usefulness, and high potential for abuse.

Side Effects

Amphetamines can produce severe systemic effects, including cardiac irregularities and gastric disturbances. Chronic use often results in insomnia, hyperactivity, irritability, and aggressive behavior. Addiction can result in psychosis or death from overexhaustion or cardiac arrest. Amphetamine-induced psychosis often mimics schizophrenia, with paranoia and hallucinations.
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C6H5CH2CHNHCH3 A volatile, colorless liquid used as a central nervous system stimulant.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a synthetic colourless volatile liquid used medicinally as the white crystalline sulphate, mainly for its stimulant action on the central nervous system, although it also stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. It can have unpleasant or dangerous side effects and drug dependence can occur; 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane. Formula: C6H5CH2CH(NH2)CH3
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
SAFER STREETS The pounds 20,000 worth of cocaine seized by police.; DRUGS SEIZED Far left, the cannabis valued at pounds 80,000 and left, amphetamine sulphate with a street value of about pounds 100,000.
During the investigation police have seized 233 kilos of cocaine, 50 kilos of heroin, more than seven kilos of amphetamine sulphate, 20 kilos of cannabis, pounds 233,500 in cash and two semi-automatic handguns.
It is understood the substance was amphetamine sulphate - more commonly known as speed.
I have shared a gram of bathtub amphetamine sulphate with Johnny Rotten, and a cup of lukewarm Green Room tea with Des O'Connor, so allow me to speak from experience.
Spencer has been at large since October 2000 after police raided a multimillion pound drugs factory at a remote farmhouse which was producing ecstasy and amphetamine sulphate. Spencer fled to Holland, where it is believed he was later involved in a shoot-out in Amsterdam which left one man dead.
There may well be a case for distinguishing between amphetamine sulphate, ecstasy and methamphetamine (including crystal methamphetamine) based on these criteria.
CLASS B: Amphetamine Sulphate, Barbiturates, Cannabis, Codeine, Pentazocine
The prosecution said the defendants had planned to buy chemicals to make pounds 250,000 worth of amphetamine sulphate, known as Speed.
They found 100kg of pure amphetamine sulphate - speed - and 4kg of cocaine with a street value of pounds 9 million.
William Stirrat was jailed for six years over a pounds 500,000 amphetamine sulphate bust in 2004.
Jagger was accused of being in possession of four tablets containing amphetamine sulphate and methylamphetamine hydrochloride on the same date.