amphetamine

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Related to amphetamine sulphate: amphetamine sulfate

amphetamine

(ămfĕt`əmēn), any one of a group of drugs that are powerful central nervous system stimulantsstimulant,
any substance that causes an increase in activity in various parts of the nervous system or directly increases muscle activity. Cerebral, or psychic, stimulants act on the central nervous system and provide a temporary sense of alertness and well-being as well as
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. Amphetamines have stimulating effects opposite to the effects of depressantsdepressant,
any one of various substances that diminish functional activity, usually by depressing the nervous system. Barbiturates, sedatives, alcohol, and meprobamate are all depressants. Depressants have various modes of action and effects.
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 such as alcohol, narcoticsnarcotic,
any of a number of substances that have a depressant effect on the nervous system. The chief narcotic drugs are opium, its constituents morphine and codeine, and the morphine derivative heroin.

See also drug addiction and drug abuse.
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, and barbituratesbarbiturate
, any one of a group of drugs that act as depressants on the central nervous system. High doses depress both nerve and muscle activity and inhibit oxygen consumption in the tissues. In low doses barbiturates act as sedatives, i.e.
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. They raise the blood pressure by causing the body to release epinephrineepinephrine
, hormone important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholamine, together with norepinephrine, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal gland.
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, postpone the need for sleep, and can reverse, partially and temporarily, the effects of fatigue. Amphetamines enhance mental alertness and the ability to concentrate, and also cause wakefulness, euphoria, and talkativeness. Benzedrine is the trade name for the drug amphetamine; dextroamphetamine is marketed as Dexedrine. Methamphetamine, a potent stimulant marketed as Desoxyn, is the most rapidly acting amphetamine. They are available by prescription for limited uses; illegal sources include stolen or diverted supplies or clandestine laboratories.

Uses

Prescription amphetamines have been used for short periods of time in weight-control programs to suppress appetite and to treat narcolepsy. They were used as vasoconstrictors in inhalant therapy to shrink nasal mucous membranes in such conditions as nasal allergies and asthma; now such inhalants have been banned because of their toxicity. For unknown reasons, amphetamines have a paradoxically calming effect on some hyperactive children, but the use of these drugs to treat such children has been controversial.

Amphetamine Abuse

Popularly known as bennies, crank, speed, pep pills, wakeups, or uppers, amphetamines are addictive and easily abused: users can become psychologically dependent on the drugs and, developing a tolerance for them, can require increasingly large doses (see drug addiction and drug abusedrug addiction and drug abuse,
chronic or habitual use of any chemical substance to alter states of body or mind for other than medically warranted purposes. Traditional definitions of addiction, with their criteria of physical dependence and withdrawal (and often an underlying
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). When the drugs wear off, a long period of sleep ensues, often followed by hunger and depression, which can lead to further use of amphetamines. Amphetamine addiction has been common among such diverse groups as truck drivers, students, and athletes, who have used the drugs for increased energy, alertness, or endurance. Methamphetamine, made from ephedrineephedrine
, drug derived from plants of the genus Ephedra (see Pinophyta), most commonly used to prevent mild or moderate attacks of bronchial asthma. Unlike epinephrine, to which it is chemically similar, ephedrine is slow to take effect and of mild potency and long
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 and other chemicals in clandestine laboratories in the the United States or Mexico, experienced a resurgence in use in the United States beginning the mid-1990s, and its abuse also has increased worldwide. Amphetamines are inhaled, taken orally, or injected; as with other injected drugs, needle sharing increases the risk of contracting the AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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 virus. One form of methamphetamine, "ice," is smoked. For law enforcement purposes in the United States, most amphetamines are grouped with such drugs as cocaine and morphine because of the similarity in their effects, medical usefulness, and high potential for abuse.

Side Effects

Amphetamines can produce severe systemic effects, including cardiac irregularities and gastric disturbances. Chronic use often results in insomnia, hyperactivity, irritability, and aggressive behavior. Addiction can result in psychosis or death from overexhaustion or cardiac arrest. Amphetamine-induced psychosis often mimics schizophrenia, with paranoia and hallucinations.

amphetamine

[‚am·fed·ə‚mēn]
(pharmacology)
C6H5CH2CHNHCH3 A volatile, colorless liquid used as a central nervous system stimulant.

amphetamine

a synthetic colourless volatile liquid used medicinally as the white crystalline sulphate, mainly for its stimulant action on the central nervous system, although it also stimulates the sympathetic nervous system. It can have unpleasant or dangerous side effects and drug dependence can occur; 1-phenyl-2-aminopropane. Formula: C6H5CH2CH(NH2)CH3
References in periodicals archive ?
DRUGS SEIZED Far left, the cannabis valued at pounds 80,000 and left, amphetamine sulphate with a street value of about pounds 100,000.
During the investigation police have seized 233 kilos of cocaine, 50 kilos of heroin, more than seven kilos of amphetamine sulphate, 20 kilos of cannabis, pounds 233,500 in cash and two semi-automatic handguns.
It is understood the substance was amphetamine sulphate - more commonly known as speed.
I have shared a gram of bathtub amphetamine sulphate with Johnny Rotten, and a cup of lukewarm Green Room tea with Des O'Connor, so allow me to speak from experience.
Spencer has been at large since October 2000 after police raided a multimillion pound drugs factory at a remote farmhouse which was producing ecstasy and amphetamine sulphate.
This is because the manufacture of methamphetamine and amphetamine sulphate involves relatively simply chemical processes (involving only a few reactions) and the principal precursor ingredient (pseudoephedrine) is a fairly common chemical that can be extracted from over-the-counter flu medicines such as Sudafed and Telfast (manufacturers pay others
CLASS B: Amphetamine Sulphate, Barbiturates, Cannabis, Codeine, Pentazocine
The prosecution said the defendants had planned to buy chemicals to make pounds 250,000 worth of amphetamine sulphate, known as Speed.
They found 100kg of pure amphetamine sulphate - speed - and 4kg of cocaine with a street value of pounds 9 million.
William Stirrat was jailed for six years over a pounds 500,000 amphetamine sulphate bust in 2004.
Jagger was accused of being in possession of four tablets containing amphetamine sulphate and methylamphetamine hydrochloride on the same date.