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Amphistomes that have been identified in ruminants encompass more than 70 species.
Adult amphistomes remained attach to the epithelium of the bile duct of domestic ruminants where they inflict sever damage (Fukui, 1929; Mazahery et al., 1994; Singh, 1958).
Amphistomes produce "granulomatous nodules" at attachment sites and infiltrated by numerous inflammatory cells (Haque et al., 2011).
As is evident from the current situation, further studies on amphistomes epidemiology and transmission to animals are required to obtain the baseline data, on which appropriate control measures could be established.
In 2010-2011, the post-mortem examinations of 553 buffaloes were conducted immediately after slaughtering to ascertain the presence of adult amphistomes. The adult worms found in bile ducts were collected with the help of rubber-coated forceps in order to avoid any structural damage.
An accurate morphometric study has been conducted to establish phenotypic markers for adult amphistomes found in naturally infected buffaloes.
For adult Amphistomes and their eggs, the following measurements were taken for whole mount and sagittal section (Fig.
The comparative morphometric measurements of adult amphistomes species from Pakistan are shown in the Table I with their mean and standard deviation.
Table I.- Morphometrics with Mean values +-SD of n=115 adult amphistomes in buffaloes from Pakistan, lineal biometric characters in mm, and ratios without units.
Morphological, hematological and histological identification is important features used to differentiate amphistomes. Several earlier studies have investigated morphological and histological variation in amphistomes species.
The amphistomes were attached on the inner side of the bile duct drawing mucosal plugs inside their acetabulum.