Amphiumidae

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Amphiumidae

[‚am·fē′yü·mə‚dē]
(vertebrate zoology)
A small family of urodele amphibians in the suborder Salamandroidea composed of three species of large, eellike salamanders with tiny limbs.
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The word amphiuma comes from the Greek amphi, meaning "on both sides," and pneuma, meaning "breathe," based on a misconception that the salamander can breathe both air and water.
But we were a little surprised when we found several amphiumas in the minnow traps we'd set in the pond the previous day.
Amphiumas spend most of their time foraging in the bottom of streams, hunkering down beneath leaf litter and vegetation.
This specimen was located roughly 140 km due west of the original find by George Spangler of an amphiuma in Indiana at Jeffersonville (Minton 1972).
Observations on a population of the salamander, Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier.
The food habits of the salamander Amphiuma tridactylum.
A new proteocephalid from Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier.
During June of 1941 Riser, from the Illinois Institute of Technology and working independent of RLBS scholarship support, recovered and later described Ophiotaenia alternans a new species of proteocephalid tapeworm from the small intestine of a three-toed amphiuma.
Amphiuma tridactylum is generally considered to be nocturnal, with a peak of activity in the hours leading to midnight (Cagle, 1948).
Trapping methods for Amphiuma have included baited cylindrical funnel traps of various designs, gigging, crawfish funnel traps, seining, hook and line, electro-shocking, burrow excavation, artificial shelters, and hand collecting (Baker, 1945; Fontenot, 1999; Johnson and Barichivich, 2004; Sorensen, 2004; Wilson et al.
Here we describe two relatively well-preserved Amphiuma vertebrae from the site, and illustrate and discuss vertebral characters and structures that clearly separate this taxon from those of the other North American aquatic eel-like salamanders of the family Sirenidae.
Fossil History of Amphiuma -- Although the fossil record of the paedomorphic salamander genus Amphiuma is limited, it dates back to the late Paleocene (8), approximately 54 Ma B.