Due to the fact that the periodic fault signal usually submerges in the strong background noise, the larger

amplitude noise will be kept and smaller amplitude feature signal will be discarded in the traditional EMD thresholding methods.

where [phi](t) is the phase noise, r(t) is the

amplitude noise, [V.sub.0] is the rms voltage, and [[omega].sub.0] is themicrowave carrier frequency.

The added

amplitude noise is random Gaussian noise with a zero mean and deviations of 20%, 50% and 100%, respectively.

SSB phase noise,

amplitude noise, AM noise measurement, additive or residual noise characterization, and baseband noise measurements up to 6 GHz can easily be made for sources such as crystal oscillators, PLL synthesizers, clocks, phase-locked VCOs, and DROs.

The NXA is designed with a two-channel phase and

amplitude noise analyzer using cross-correlation to cancel its own internal noise.

The behavior of the derived formula is investigated and the

amplitude noise of electrical oscillators is calculated.

Amplitude noise can be separated into its constituent parts in the same way as timing jitter.

SSB phase noise,

amplitude noise, AM noise measurement, additive or residual noise characterization, and baseband noise measurements up to 6GHz can easily be made for sources such as crystal oscillators, PLL synthesizers, clocks, phase-locked VCOs, DROs, and many others.

All models deliver a diffraction-limited TEM00 ([M.sup.2]<1.1) output beam, low

amplitude noise (< 0.25% rms), and superior pointing stability (<30 [micro]rad for [+ or -]3 C).

Employing this technology, suppression of optical

amplitude noise using a 107 gigabit per second (Gbps) phase modulated ultra high-speed signal was successfully verified.

Rather than concentrating on theory, practitioner Maas emphasizes real-world circuit performance, giving some background on phase and

amplitude noise as well as linear and nonlinear noise, then progressing to noise and random processes, including narrowband random processes, noise figure, noise temperature, and the system noise model, the noise theory of solid-state devices and of linear and nonlinear circuits, low-noise amplifiers, oscillators, and mixers and frequency multipliers.