circuit that acquires taste aversion memory differs from the circuit that extinguishes it.
Endogenous glucocorticoids influence complex biological processes, such as growth, metabolism and immunity; they also control the hunger centre, the sleep/wakefulness cycle; they affect learning and memorising processes by interacting with specific receptors, localized in the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus and the amygdale
(1, 2, 3).
RUNX1 and SIM2 presented maximum under expression in the nucleus of the amygdale
(18)) (-23)) These endocannabinoid signaling molecules are richly expressed in various brain areas including the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdale
, dorsal and ventral striatum, hypothalamus, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
Regional cerebral blood flow in amygdale
and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD.
Although it is now clear that the amygdale
is not so specialized for fear, but processes a broader range of emotions, it was found that certain persons were impaired in their ability to judge the level of arousal of their emotions with negative valence (unpleasant emotions), including fear, anger, disgust and sadness.
For instance, thirty-four children with ASD and 13 developmentally delayed children without ASD, between two and seven years of age (matched on age and developmental level), participated in an MRI study to investigate volumes of cranium, total brain, cerebellum, grey and white matter, ventricles, hippocampus, and amygdale
Research has established a contribution of brain structures including the p-STC and m-STC and the DLPFC and OFC as well as limbic regions such as the amygdale
or aspects, of the arMFC.
Our recent study  showed that acupuncture attenuated elevated c-fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdale
(CeA) during morphine withdrawal in rats.
Oxytocin increases trust-related behaviors towards members of the social group (Kosfeld, Heinrichs, Zak, Fischbacher, & Fehr, 2005), activity in the lateral and dorsal regions of the amygdale
following exposure to positive social cues (Gamer, Zurowski, & Buchel, 2010) and the salience of social information of close or reliable others (Bartz, Zaki, Bolger, & Ochner, 2011).