The expression of glgC was targeted to amyloplast
using pea transit peptide (PSP).
Structure and presence of the amyloplast
membrane proteins, puroindolines, are associated with wheat grain hardness.
There is an exception concerning amyloplast
formation during the bicellular stage of some grasses, such as Sorghum bicolor, in which the plastids next to the tapetum accumulate starch before those that are far from the tapetum do (Christensen & Homer, 1974).
The observation that the gravitational response is pressure dependent, even for accelerations where amyloplast
sedimentation already seems to be saturated, favors a pressure mechanism at least for higher plants (Rawitscher, 1932; Johnsson, 1965; Friedrich and Hertel, 1973).
The comparison of B73 and Mo17 inbred lines indicates that the physiological basis for increased tolerance to high temperature is associated with ability to protect endosperm cell ultrastructure and ultimately endosperm cell division and amyloplast
initiation against the detrimental effects of high temperature during early kernel development.
A hydrophobic domain would have a strong affinity for lipids (Schiffer et al., 1992) and may hold these two proteins to the lipidrich surface of the amyloplast
membrane, transiently attached to the starch granule.
The sucrose available for exporting from mesophyll cells is transported through the phloem to the sink organs, where it can be stored as starch in amyloplasts
or converted to hexoses (LEMOINE et al., 2013) by invertase (acidic and neutral isoforms) and sucrose synthase (susy) enzymes (STURM; TANG, 1999; WINTER; HUBER, 2000; WELHAM et al., 2009).
(2014), these diseases cause in P edulis hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the cambium, xylem and phloem; destruction of xylem fibers and amyloplasts
in parenchymal cells, as well as the production of gels, causing an expressive reduction in crop productivity.
barbatus stem, the endodermis has been reported to contain many amyloplasts
and the vascular bundle arrangement of P.
Starch is synthesized and accumulated in amyloplasts
, a polymer formed by the association of two polysaccharides: amylose (approximately 25% of the total content) and amylopectin (the remaining 75%), the main component of starch granules (Zeeman, Kossmann, & Smith, 2010).
Chitinase III in pomegranate seeds (Punica granatum Linn.): a high-capacity calcium-binding protein in amyloplasts
. Plant J., 68: 765- 776
They have a dense cytoplasm with irregular shape filled with numerous small vesicles, oil body, abundant amyloplasts
and a prominent centrally placed nucleus (Fig.