Figure 1 shows the extracted ion chromatograms for nicotine, cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine, nornicotine and anabasine
at concentrations of 10 ng/mL in extracted human urine.
Rezvani, "Effects of tobacco smoke constituents, anabasine
and anatabine, on memory and attention in female rats," Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol.
Other minor alkaloids include nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine
El-Shazly and co-workers in 2005 isolated N-acetylpiperidine (59), piperidine (60), aldotripiperidiene (61), haloxine (62), halosaline (63), simpine (64), N-(2-hydroxy ethyl) piperidine (65), 3,4-dihydro-5-(2-piperidinyl)-1(2H)pyridine carboxaldehyde (66) and anabasine
(67) from H.
Along with nicotine, other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine
and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between species) seem to deter most herbivores, (5) a number of such animals have evolved the ability to feed on Nicotiana species without being harmed.
Influence of nicotine, cotinine, anabasine
and cigarette smoke extract on human granulosa cell progesterone and estradiol synthesis.
One of the earliest reports of the use of plant extracts against mosquito larvae is extraction of plant alkaloids like nicotine, anabasine
, methyl anabasine
and lupinine from the Russian weed in 1933.
Most samples also contained impurities known to be toxic to humans, such as anabasine
, myosmine, and betanicotyrine.
Keeler and Panter also conducted a round of research to see whether the alkaloid anabasine
in wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)--a plant that is also toxic to livestock--had similar effects on Spanish goats.
Compounds of plant origin such as rotenone, nicotine, anabasine
, methyl anabasine
and lupinine were found effective in killing Culex territans (Diptera: Culicidae) (1).
, the most important, is lethal to insects and almost harmless to warm-blooded animals such as humans.
To address this issue several reference laboratories have developed mass spectrometry--based assays for detection of the tobacco plant alkaloid anabasine
. This compound is present in tobacco plants but not in the manufacture of NRTs, and therefore is marketed as a tool to allow for the differentiation of active smokers from those who are abstaining.