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metabolism, sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by the release of energy. Organic molecules involved in these processes are called metabolites, and their interconversions are catalyzed by enzymes. The transformation of one molecule into another, and then into another and another in sequence, is termed a metabolic pathway; the intermediates in these pathways are often identified with the aid of a chemical tracer. Exercise, food, and environmental temperature influence metabolism. Basal metabolism is the caloric expenditure of an organism at rest; it represents the minimum amount of energy required to maintain life at normal body temperature. The basal metabolism rate is usually measured indirectly by calculation from measurements of the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged during breathing under certain standard conditions, i.e., complete rest in a room temperature of 68℉ (20℃), 12 to 14 hours after ingestion of food. A less cumbersome method of estimating basal metabolic rate involves the quantitative assay of the hormone thyroxine, known to regulate the body's rate of metabolism. Often the word metabolism is associated with a particular organic compound or class of compounds, as in phenylalanine metabolism or amino acid metabolism. In this usage the word refers to the sum of all interconversions, both anabolic and catabolic, in which the particular compound or class of compounds is involved.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the aggregate of chemical processes that constitute one of the aspects of metabolism in an organism and are directed at forming the components of cells and tissues. Anabolism is interrelated with the opposite process, catabolism, since the decomposed products of various compounds can be reused in anabolism, forming new substances in different combinations. Anabolic processes, occurring in green plants with the absorption of solar energy, are of planetary significance and play a decisive role in the synthesis of organic substances from inorganic ones.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A part of metabolism involving the union of smaller molecules into larger molecules; the method of synthesis of tissue structure.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a metabolic process in which complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Excess GH promoted anabolism when the oxygen consumption was elevated and resulted in enhanced glucose metabolism.
This effect is related to a higher cellular anabolism during senescence, when cells are exposed to persistent oxidative stress with potential damage of cellular organelles.
In this respect, leucine is considered the primary nutritional regulator of muscle protein anabolism [11], due to its ability to trigger the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and inhibit the proteasome (Figure 1) [11].
These findings are complementary to other PRP studies on joints [28, 29] and isolated cartilage [30] in which some researchers have concluded that Lr-PRP preparations are better to induce joint anabolism and to diminish inflammation than Lc-PRP preparations.
Patients classified as having maladaptive anabolism may benefit from a GLP1RA.
Accordingly, the presence of non-/poorly functional osteoclasts incapable of resorbing bone, yet capable of signaling to neighboring osteoblasts to support bone anabolism, would suggest the osteoblast may be a viable therapeutic target for future treatments in patients with osteopetrosis.
According to this physiological perspective based by von Bertalanffy on the hypothesis that net growth causes a change in mass as a result of the difference between anabolism and catabolism, a cubic function can demonstrate this metabolic process.
In sections on how nutrition and other factors relate to sarcopenia, protein and exercise, and other therapeutic strategies, they discuss such topics as whether malnutrition-sarcopenia syndrome is the future of nutrition screening and assessment for older adults, novel insights on nutrient management of sarcopenia in the elderly, myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men, the pleiotropic effect of physical exercise on mitochondrial dynamics in aging skeletal muscle, muscle wasting and resistance of muscle anabolism: the "anabolic threshold concept" for adapted nutritional strategies during sarcopenia, and the rationale for antioxidant supplementation in sarcopenia.
The emblem's serpents emphasise diametrically opposed metabolic processes, namely anabolism and catabolism.
The once-daily oral medication AA (marketed as Zytiga, Abiratas, Abretone and Abirapro) is "a potent inhibitor of steroid hormone anabolism," according to the research team, and the drug is already known to interfere with the CYP17A1 enzymes required in the body's production of androgens.
Esters: The metabolism of amino acids (anabolism and catabolism) by yeast leads to the formation of higher alcohols, acetate esters and ethyl esters.