These encoders offer analog current or analog voltage
output and can be ordered with a full scale output over any number of turns between 1 and 1,024.
The boards feature eight standard analog voltage
input ranges, two factory current input ranges (4 to 20 mA or 10 to 50 mA), 16 factory pseudo-differential inputs, a data sample buffer, and hardware real-time calibration capability.
Note that in an analog front end, for detecting the offset voltage, an analog voltage
comparator should be used.
Electronic devices that handle both analog and digital communications count with an analog-to-digital converter, which enables the microcontroller to connect to an analog sensor to read in an analog voltage
. Figure 2 provides a visual representation of digital and analog waves.
Output modules generate analog voltage
or current signals for process control.
At my home workstation, I have an old Fluke handheld digital multimeter (DMM) in its classic orange case, along with a very old analog voltage
ohm-meter (VOM) in its similarly classic boxy black plastic case.
The model of settings adaption system for current protections: 1--input of analog current and analog voltage
values: 2--proportional coefficient calculation unit; 3--calculated for rated operation settings adjuster; 4--switching unit from calculated to nominal conditions settings to adaptive settings; 5 --drop-out ratio adjuster unit; 6--settings transferring unit to protection relay
Output current is set with an internal potentiometer or an analog voltage
. The pulse width is controlled with the input trigger signal.
The speed input takes an analog voltage
and generates pulse width modulated (PWM) output with variable duty cycle.
The insertion of this capacitance is necessary to generate the triangular shape of the output signal; this cuts the DC path from the analog voltage
node to the ground.
To emulate [v.sub.B] in (17), integrator and analog multiplier are implemented, in which the voltage from the buffer and that from the integrator are multiplied using an analog voltage
Next, the mechanism of the information leakage is discussed from the relationships between the color of the button image in the display image, the corresponding analog voltages
of the RGB signals, the emitted signal by the analog voltage
variations of the RGB signals in the raster scan, the detected component of the emitted signal in the reception signal, and the grayscale shading in the reconstructed display image.