The role of complement anaphylatoxin
C5a in neurodegeneration: implications in Alzheimer's disease.
C5a receptor mRNA is strongly expressed in Kupffer and stellate cells and weakly in sinusoidal endothelial cells but not in hepatocytes of normal rat liver.
Complement activation can be initiated through any of its three activation pathways: classical (CP), alternative (AP), or lectin (LP), all converging towards the formation of C3-convertases and the cleavage of C3 component into C3b and the anaphylatoxin
Table 3 (a) 12 upregulated MeDEGs identified in SSc HUGO (a) HUGO gene name (a): function (b) C3AR1 Complement C3a Receptor 1: Receptor for the chemotactic and inflammatory peptide anaphylatoxin
In the case of immune mediated hemorrhage in the lung, the hypotheses for vessel leak are (1) vessel injury from neutrophil activation (e.g., through antineutrophil antibodies (ANCA associated vasculitis, AAV)), (2) immune complex deposition with activation of complement, anaphylatoxin
, and mast cells, or (3) abnormal lymphocyte inflammation and injury [14-16].
Afterwards, the Fc[epsilon]R and the anaphylatoxin
receptors (C5aR and C3aR), which bind with IgE, C5a, and C3a, respectively, the coactivation of the coagulation, and the kinin-kallikrein systems participate in the inflammation cascade .
C3a is an anaphylatoxin
linked to proinflammatory signaling and chemotaxis [25, 43].
ASP is identical to C3adesArg, the inactive fragment of the complement anaphylatoxin
 showed that complement activation triggered by hemodialysis biomaterials, and the subsequent generation of the complement anaphylatoxin
C5a, resulted in the expression of functionally active TF in peripheral blood neutrophils .
Vater, "Structural basis for the targeting of complement anaphylatoxin
C5a using a mixed L-RNA/L-DNA aptamer," Nature Communications, vol.
Complement activation from classical, alternative, and lectin pathways leads to production of the anaphylatoxin
C3a, a small polypeptide released from the precursor protein C3 by C3 convertases.