anaplasmosis


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anaplasmosis

(ăn'əplăzmō`sĭs), infectious blood disease in cattle, sheep, and goats, caused by a rickettsiarickettsia
, any of an order (Rickettsiales) of very small microorganisms, many disease-causing, that live in vertebrates and are transmitted by bloodsucking parasitic arthropods such as fleas, lice (see louse), and ticks.
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 of the genus Anaplasma. The organism parasitizes red blood cells, causing their destruction and producing emaciation, anemia, jaundice, and, occasionally, death. The disease is present in the warmer regions of the world and is most prevalent in the United States in the Gulf states, lower Plains, and California. Wild ruminants such as deer and antelope may be asymptomatic carriers. Transmission of the disease occurs mainly by the spread of infected blood through insect vectors, especially ticks and biting flies. It can also be transmitted in herds as they undergo any sort of large-scale procedure, such as dehorning.

The incubation period varies from three to four weeks. Infected animals first show a fever, which may rise to 107°F; (62°C;) in severe cases, and then jaundice and anemia set in. Pregnant cows will frequently abort. Treatment of anaplasmosis consists of antibiotic therapy and blood transfusions, administration of fluids, and rest. Protecting well animals through the routine use of insecticides or insect repellents (to control insects that carry the rickettsia) or by vaccination limits the incidence of the disease.

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, which was called human granulocytic ehrlichiosis when it was first identified (the causative agent, A. phagocytophilum, was classified at the time in Ehrlichia, another rickettsia genus), continues to be generically considered an ehrlichiosisehrlichiosis
, any of several diseases caused by rickettsia of the genera Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Ehrlichiosis is transmitted by ticks. Both human forms tend to develop about nine days after a tick bite.
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Anaplasmosis

 

a disease of domesticated and wild animals caused by blood parasites of the genus Anaplasma. The pathogen is transmitted from a sick animal to a healthy one by bites, chiefly of ixodoid ticks, as well as other insects (horseflies, stable flies, and mosquitoes). Anaplasmosis is found everywhere in the world, most often in the spring, summer, and autumn. The incubation (latent) period is from three to six weeks, more rarely three months. The clinical course of the disease involves a brief elevation of temperature by 1–1.5°C, jaundice and paleness of the mucous membranes, edemas, weakness, emaciation, and a reduction in milk productivity. Prevention includes combating the carriers, testing the animals for the presence of parasites, and bathing the animals in solutions of insecticides. For treatment, terramycin, biomycin, biovitin, and tetracycline are used.

REFERENCE

Anaplazmozy zhivotnykh. Edited by A. A. Markov. Moscow, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
During the present questionnaire survey it was revealed that the farmer's knowledge about bovine and human anaplasmosis was poor.
Lyme disease and human granulocytic anaplasmosis coinfection: impact of case definition on coinfection rates and illness severity.
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The second group included anaplasmosis patients defined by [greater than or equal to] 1 if the following criteria: intraleukocyte morulae on blood smears, a positive PCR result for Anaplasma, a 4-fold increased antibody titer for A.
Among vector-borne protozoan diseases, trypanosomiasis or Surra, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and diptelonemiasis are principally important (Parsani et al., 2008; Rabana et al., 2011; El-Naga et al., 2016) and characterized by elevated body temperature, anemia, emaciation, lymphadenopathy, edema and sudden death.
Agriculture and other specialists from around the world address arthropod pests in the poultry industry, Brachycera flies in dairy farms, the cattle tick, and sheep myiasis; trypanosomosis, mosquito-borne diseases in the livestock industry, bluetongue virus, and tick-borne anaplasmosis, cowdriosis, and babesiosis; interventions like the use of an anti-tick vaccine for integrated cattle fever tick eradication in the US, biological control with parasitoids, entomopathogens, semiochemical tools for livestock pest control, genetic control of vectors, biosecurity, and a simulation model of stable flies and their control; and the impact of vector control, including costs.