The androgenic gland (AG) is a unique organ of crustaceans, responsible for controlling the differentiation of primary and secondary sexual characteristics in males.
The characterization of the encoding insulin-like peptide-specific androgenic gland gene will reveal new aspects about the reproduction of penaeid shrimp, such as understanding the sex differentiation mechanisms and developing biotechnological breeding strategies for reversing females (WZ) into neomales (WZ) by androgenic hormone therapies (Vega-Alpizar et al., 2016).
Unlike fish, sexual differentiation in crustaceans is uniquely regulated by the male-specific androgenic gland (AG), which has been detected in male crustaceans.
Although the mechanism of sex differentiation in crustaceans has yet to be defined, the androgenic gland (AG) is thought to be the exclusive organ that produces the androgenic hormone, which induces male sexual development.
Castration of crustacean host has been suggested as nutritional drain by the parasite and secretion of toxic substance (Cencig et al., 2013; Reinhard, 1956), reduction in circulating reproductive hormones (Robert, 1997; Lafferty and Kuris, 2009; Walker, 1977), indirect hormonal castration (Hechinger, 2010; Baudoin, 1975) or in male host, decline of secretion by the androgenic gland
Although relative androgenic gland size appears to differ little between the two sexual morphs, there is a distinct difference in their overall aspect and internal structure.
Gonad and androgenic gland development in relation to sexual morphology in Pandalopsis japonica Balss, 1914 (Decapoda.
Androgenic gland (AG) of crustacean is an endocrine gland unique to males.
Insulin-like androgenic gland hormone, IAG, plays a key role during male sex differentiation and spermatogenesis in crustacean [29, 30].
Apparently, the feminization of genetic males by Wolbachia is due to an inhibition of androgenic gland
Intersex individuals may represent cases of true hermaphroditism, in which the androgenic gland
disappears to permit the expression of the feminine phase in protandric species (Charniaux-Cotton, 1958).
In male crustaceans, in addition to the two neurohormones, GSH and GIH, the androgenic gland
hormone (AGH) has a major role in the control of spermatogenesis.