Sex-gender congruent male androphiles occupy the gender role typical of their sex, behave in a relatively masculine manner, and identify as "men." In contrast, transgendered male androphiles often behave in a highly effeminate manner and identify as neither "men," nor "women." Instead, they typically identify as members of a third gender.
Sex-gender congruent male androphiles occupy the gender role typical of their sex, behave in a relatively masculine manner, and identify as "men." The term "sex-gender congruent" androphilia highlights the critical roles of gender role enactment and gender identity in distinguishing the two forms of male androphilia under consideration here.
For example, on the Indian subcontinent, transgendered male androphiles known as hijra bestow blessings from Hindu gods and goddesses for luck and fertility at weddings and at the birth of male babies (Nanda, 1998).
In terms of biodemographic correlates, when compared to gynephilic males, both sex-gender congruent and transgendered male androphiles tend to be later born among their siblings (e.g., Blanchard, 2004; VanderLaan & Vasey, 2011; Vasey & VanderLaan, 2007), have greater numbers of older biological brothers ("fraternal birth order effect (1)," e.g., Bogaert & Skorska, 2011; VanderLaan & Vasey, 2011; Vasey & VanderLaan, 2007), exhibit larger family sizes (e.g., Blanchard & Lippa, 2007; Camperio-Ciani, Corna & Capiluppi, 2004; Iemmola & Camperio Ciani, 2009; King et al.
Prospective and retrospective cross-cultural research on early psychosocial development among transgendered and sex-gender congruent male androphiles has shown that the childhood behaviour of such males is characterized by greater levels of female-typical behaviour (e.g., nurturing play with dolls) and lower levels of male-typical behaviour (e.g., rough-and-tumble play; Bailey & Zucker, 1995; Bartlett & Vasey, 2006; Cardoso 2005, 2009; Whitam, 1983).
Consequently, adult sex-gender congruent male androphiles are relatively masculine when compared to transgendered adult male androphiles.
Since male androphilia appears to have a genetic component, but male androphiles reproduce little, if at all, one would have expected genes for male androphilia to have become extinct given the relative reproductive costs associated with this trait and the reproductive benefits associated with male gynephilia.
Previous discussions pertaining to the evolution of male androphilia have centred almost exclusively on sex-gender congruent male androphiles. Consequently, the remainder of this review concentrates on our Samoan fa'afafine research given its unique focus on transgendered male androphiles.
This may seem perplexing from a Western cultural perspective, however, it is important to note that in cultures where transgendered male androphilia predominates, many male gynephiles may experience relatively little sexual aversion to the idea of engaging in certain types of same-sex sexual interactions because, to a certain extent, transgendered male androphiles resemble their preferred sex partners (i.e., adult females).