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Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is usually characterized as normocytic and normochromic, although in about one-third of patients, the anemia is microcytic and hypochromic.
Anemia of chronic disease in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with increased apoptosis of bone marrow erythroid cells: improvement following anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody therapy.
Hepcidin: a putative iron-regulatory hormone relevant to hereditary hemochromatosis and the anemia of chronic disease.
Studies failed to show an association between anemia of chronic disease and atherosclerosis, even though atherosclerosis is regarded as a subclinical inflammation.
Hepcidin inhibitors such as NOX-H94 offer the potential to provide a targeted treatment alternative for anemia of chronic disease and to avoid some of the disadvantages of the existing unspecific therapies which are often given at supra-physiological doses: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), i.
Iron metabolism in patients with HIV follows a pattern similar to the anemia of chronic disease, with low serum iron levels and high ferritin levels.
Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in the Presence of Inflammation and the Anemia of Chronic Disease
The underlying causes of anemia of chronic disease are mainly infections, cancer, autoimmune diseases and chronic kidney disease.
Discriminating between iron deficiency anemia and anemia of chronic disease using traditional indices of iron status vs transferrin receptor concentration.
Data were reported demonstrating that HIF-PHI overcome TNF-mediated suppression of erythropoietin production in vitro, exhibit efficacy in multiple species, and alleviate anemia due to renal insufficiency in the 5/6 nephrectomy model and due to inflammation in a rat model of anemia of chronic disease.
Serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) has been established in recent years as a powerful tool for detecting iron deficiency (ID) in adults, especially in distinguishing between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (1-8).
Through this collaboration, FibroGen is also positioned to address the larger, multi-million patient market opportunities currently not penetrated and addressed by rHuEPO products, including: chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who are not yet on dialysis (pre-dialysis) and who are under the care of primary care physicians, patients having cancer-related anemias, patients with anemia associated with congestive heart failure (CHF), age-related anemia patients, and patients with anemia of chronic disease (ACD).