Cutting edge: The transmembrane E3 ligase GRAIL ubiquitinates the costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand during the induction of T cell anergy
. J Immunol 2008;181:1622-6.
Low doses favor the induction of Tregs and high doses favor the induction of anergy
or deletion. The efficacy of mucosal tolerance is currently undergoing testing in humans for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, and no toxicities or autoimmune reactions have been found., However, we think that there are some shortcomings in the clinical transformation of mucosal tolerance in the treatment of brain diseases, for example, the individual mucosal absorption rate is uncertain; craniocerebral trauma is often associated with nose and facial injuries, often limiting the use of nasal mucosa antigen; severe TBI or stroke with stress ulcer requires fasting water and gastrointestinal decompression, limiting the use of oral immune tolerance.
High incidence of anergy
in inflammatory bowel disease patients limits the usefulness of PPD screening before infliximab therapy.
(40) Anergized B cells are typically localized at the border between the T cell zone and follicle but not MZ (40) in the periphery, and excess CD40L fails to reverse anergy
. (41) Thus, classical anergy
does not appear to be induced in Sm/RNP-reactive B cells.
Nadler, "Human T-cell clonal anergy
is induced by antigen presentation in the absence of B7 costimulation," Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Although CTLA4Ig was initially envisioned to induce tolerance towards solid organ allografts by selective T cell costimulation blockade, which was intended to lead to anergy
and tolerance, concerns arose whether it has a potentially detrimental impact on Tregs.
Chronic nicotine treatment induces T cell anergy
. J Immunol.
1 Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 11 10/1 4-96 2 X-linked agammaglobulinemia 7 7/0 27-216 3 Chronic granulomatous disease 4 3/1 7-60 4 Severe combined immunodeficiency 4 4/0 4-48 5 Common variable immunodeficiency 3 2/1 84-120 6 Chediak-Higashi syndrome 3 1/2 26-86 7 Hypogammaglobulinemia 2 1/1 96-108 8 IgG subclass deficiency 2 0/2 84-114 9 Hyper-IgM syndrome 2 2/0 17-59 10 Autoimmune lymphoproliferative 1 0/1 15 syndrome 11 B cell expansion with NF-[kappa]B 1 1/0 18 and T cell anergy
12 Hyper-IgE syndrome 1 1/0 42 13 Interleukin 12 receptor [beta]1 1 1/0 156 Total defect 42 33/9 4-216 * PID, primary immunodeficiency Table 2.
However, it should be kept in mind that HIV positivity may cause anergy
to the PPD test and make TB diagnosis difficult.
Gr-1+ CD115+ immature myeloid suppressor cells mediate the development of tumor-induced T regulatory cells and T-cell anergy
in tumor-bearing host.
Prinz, "Intratumoral alterations of dendritic-cell differentiation and CD8(+) T-cell anergy
are immune escape mechanisms of clear cell renal cell carcinoma," OncoImmunology, vol.
When PD-1 binds to its ligands in tumors; it leads to T-cell anergy
and blocks productive antitumor immune response .