Chemical Compounds Essential Oils Cumin Dill Anise Fennel Cuminaldehyde 32.66% [gamma]-terpinene 19.87% [beta]-pinene 15.22% o-cymene 14.00% 2-caren-10-al 8.54% 1-fenil-1-butanol 8.01% D-limonene 1.7% 18.92% fraws-anethole 94.01% Estragole cis-anethole 2.46% 3.65% cis-(-)-2,4a,5,6,9a-Hexahydro 1.7% -3,5,5,9 tetramethyl(1H)benzocycloheptene 0.83% ds-anethole (+)-Carvone 0.29% Di-epi-alpha-cedrene 0.24% Limonene 0.18% p-Cumic aldehyde 0.16% beta-Chamigrene 0.13% Carvone 34.89% Apiol 22.02% Dihydrocarvone 16.91% Trans-dihydrocarvone Anethole
7.26% 79.62% Fenchone 12.19% Methyl nonadecanoate 2.89% 1R-[alpha]-pinene 1.65% Table 2.
blocks both early and late cellular responses transduced by tumor necrosis factor: effect on NF-[kappa] B, AP-1, JNK, MAPKK and apoptosis.
After analyzing the toxicity of the compounds, control bees and the bees treated with the concentration closest to and within the 95% confidence limits of the [LD.sub.50] value at 48 hpt were used to measure the expression of AChE (the bees treated with 110 [micro]g/ml of tau-fluvalinate, 34,000 [micro]g/ml of anethole
, and 60,000 [micro]g/ml of Cymbopogon or Tagetes oil).
Due to its organoleptic properties, pleasant aroma and sweet taste, essential oils containing anethole
have been used for centuries in the perfume, pharmaceutical, and spirit industries [1-6, 11, 12].
was reported to particularly inhibit the activity of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) enzyme.
Silva et al., "Inhibitory effect of anethole
in nonimmune acute inflammation," Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol.
The fruits of caraway are usually used as a whole and have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from its EO such as carvone, limonene, and anethole
. The main single constituents of caraway EO have been listed in Table 2.
Determination of eugenol, anethole
, and coumarin in the mainstream cigarette smoke of Indonesian clove cigarettes.
Additionally, many phenolic compounds such as eugenol, estragole, anethole
, carvacrol, thymol, coniferyl alcohol, etc., are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and constitute one of the most important classes of natural antioxidants (Amorati, Foti, & Valgimigli, 2013).
The fruit contain higher bitter principle, tannins and essential oil (9-10%), consisting of anethole
(85-90%), a-pinene, limone, b-phellandrene, a-terpineol, farnesol and safrol.
4 5 FENNEL'S sweet aniseed-like flavour comes from essential oils such as anethole
, estragole and fenchone, all thought to have antiseptic properties.
, estragole, methylchavicol, apiin, apigenin, myristin, limonene, cineole, safranal, crocin, and picrocrocin (52).