aneurysm


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aneurysm

(ăn`yo͝orĭzəm), localized dilatation of a blood vessel, particularly an arteryartery,
blood vessel that conveys blood away from the heart. Except for the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
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, or the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. Dilatation of an artery, and therefore weakness of that portion of the arterial wall, may be rarely congenital, or it may be caused by syphilissyphilis
, contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (described by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann in 1905). Syphilis was not widely recognized until an epidemic in Europe at the end of the 15th cent.
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, hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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, bacterial and fungal infections, or penetrating injury as from a bullet or knife. An aneurysm may be asymptomatic or it may cause varying symptoms, depending upon its location and size and on whether the expanding mass is pressing on adjacent nerves or vital organs. The weakened arterial walls of an aneurysm are always in danger of sudden rupture, with resulting hemorrhage and death.

Aneurysms occur most commonly in the large arteries; the aortaaorta
, primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. The human aorta, c.1 in. (2.54 cm) in diameter, originates at the left ventricle of the heart.
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, the largest vessel in the body, is the one most often affected. Ventricular aneurysms of the heart often occur after myocardial infarctionsinfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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. Aneurysms also occur in the arteries within the skull and in other areas of the body.

Aneurysms can be detected by echocardiogram, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging scans, coronary arteriograms, and biplane ventriculograms. Treatment, where feasible, may involve surgery to remove the aneurysm or the insertion of coiled wire to close it off. Coiled wire can only be used on aneurysms that are connected to the blood vessel by a narrowed neck. The coiling fills the aneurysm, obstructing the flow of blood into the dilatation, and blood clots form around the wire, preventing the aneurysm from bursting. Surgical excision of the dilated saclike portion of the affected artery sometimes requires the replacement of that portion by a synthetic graft, a section of vessel (made of polymer fiber) that is similar in size.

aneurysm

[′an·yə‚riz·əm]
(medicine)
Localized abnormal dilation of an artery due to weakening of the vessel wall.

aneurysm

, aneurism
a sac formed by abnormal dilation of the weakened wall of a blood vessel
References in periodicals archive ?
The global aortic aneurysm market is dominated by key players such as Medtronic plc*Cook Medical *Terumo Medical Corporation *Microport Scientific Corporation *MAQUET Holding B.V.
The researchers found that intracranial aneurysms were diagnosed in 9 percent of patients who underwent MRA screening.
Factors that affect whether treatment is recommended include age, the size and position of the aneurysm, family medical history and any pre-existing health conditions.
According to the company, the Neuroform Atlas Stent System is a self-expanding nitinol stent used in conjunction with metal coils to pack weakened blood vessel sacs called aneurysms within the brain.
"By diverting the flow of blood away from the aneurysm, it reduces the stress on the wall of the aneurysm and allows it to heal and shrink," Bohnstedt said.
Here, for the first time, we report the successful endovascular treatment of a splenic vein aneurysm through transhepatic percutaneous approach using a Viabahn stent.
The aneurysm was originating from the distal part of the upper renal artery (URA), which was anastomosed to the common iliac artery during the original surgery.
With proximal and distal control the aneurysm was opened and the ostium of vertebral artery was stitched from within with a 2/0 silk suture.
Major risk factors for the development of an aneurysm, Dr Habsi added, can be traced in several things including smoking, high blood pressure, family history of brain aneurysms, and abnormalities at birth, such as tangled blood vessels in the brain.
We present a case that developed bilateral ureteral obstruction and anuria due to bilateral inflammatory iliac artery aneurysm in this case report.
Methods: Eighty-eight patients with cerebral aneurysm rupture who were admitted to the hospital between February 2015 and October 2016 were selected as the research subjects and were randomly divided into a control group (N=44) and an observation group (N=44) using random number table.
The structure of the aneurysm, clinical condition of the patient, and additional diseases are important in the choice of treatment.