Angary

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Angary

 

(1) In the Roman Empire and then in Byzantium and other states of Europe in the Middle Ages (the empires of the Carolingians, Bulgaria, Poland, etc.), compulsory state cartage duty (the supply of draft animals for state transportation). In Byzantium and Bulgaria in the 13th and 14th centuries, angary also included some other duties to the state (the building of roads, bridges, and fortresses).

(2) In Byzantium, feudal Italy, and some other European countries, angary was often used to designate the corvee and other labor obligations to the landowners.

(3) In international law, angary means the right of belligerent states to seize the merchant vessels of neutral countries that happen to be in their ports and use them for warfare (transporting troops, weapons, equipment, and so forth). In the 17th century the maritime powers began to conclude treaties abrogating the right of angary. The first such treaty was concluded in 1645 between France and Denmark; subsequently, analogous treaties were made by the majority of maritime powers. On the basis of the treaties concerning angary, a common standard of international law prohibiting angary was formed in the 19th century. In defining the legal position of neutral states in time of war, the Hague Conventions of 1907 declared angary to be one of the flagrant violations of neutrality. Nevertheless, during World War I, the belligerent sides resorted to angary. Thus, in March 1918 the USA and Britain requisitioned all Dutch ships in their ports in spite of a categorical protest from the Dutch government. The USA also requisitioned a number of Norwegian vessels.

During World War II, angary was widely practiced by the imperialist states. As early as June 1941—that is, before entering World War II—the USA passed a law giving the president the right to forced use, with compensation, of foreign merchant vessels “idling” in American ports.

References in periodicals archive ?
BENEDETTO, Voz angaria, Novissimo Digesto Italiano, Torino: Utet, 1974, p.
230-231, afirma que el termino en una acepcion clasica hunde sus raices en el origen persa de la palabra angaria que aludiria a los mensajeros a caballo establecidos cada cierta distancia sobre las carreteras persas con la finalidad de llevar rapidamente las noticias relevantes al rey, y que, con posterioridad, en el Bajo Imperio la angaria indicaria los servicios realizados sobre las vias publicas principales como carga obligatoria.
Nesse cenario, a metropole angaria aspectos de comportamentos menos calidos, de fatores psicologicos esgarcados, de olhares superficiais, de embotamento de personalidades, de instabilidades dos desejos e insaciabilidade das necessidades, vivemos na cultura do imediatismo, em um tempo que a fusao da comunidade, como cita Maffesoli, "[.
82) Fotrum et angaria seu publicum servicium, id est panem et vinum carnes et annonam et alias angarias et functiones publicas.
Amlesh is from Angaria tribe and was working as a courier for smugglers and carrying cash and jewellery," said DCP New Delhi, S Dash.
Angaria in Rabbinic Literature, AC 38, 1969, 164-168 (sulle vicissitudini semantiche dei tennine [TEXTO IRREPRODUCIBLE EN ASCII.
See, for example, BT Baba Mezia 78b, the discussion of angaria.