Prorenin, renin, angiotensinogen
, and angiotensin-converting enzyme in normal and failing human hearts.
Supasyndh, "Urinary angiotensinogen
as a potential biomarker of diabetic nephropathy," Clinical Kidney Journal, vol.
Daugherty, "Corrigendum: structure and functions of angiotensinogen
," Hypertension Research, vol.
Cao, "Genetic association between angiotensinogen
polymorphisms and lung cancer risk," Medicine, vol.
level is a rate-limiting step in the generation rate of ANG II (Corvol et al., 1997).
Michelini, "Training-induced pressure fall in spontaneously hypertensive rats is associated with reduced angiotensinogen
mRNA expression within the nucleus tractus solitarii," Hypertension, vol.
Renin is an aspartyl protease which specifically cleaves angiotensinogen
. The specific location of renin in granular cells located at the base of the glomerus in the juxtaglomeruler apparatus of the kidney allows for precise monitoring and rapid response to changes in renal arteriola blood pressure and fluid flow within the nephron.3 Prorenin is synthesized and stored in vesicles until cellular signaling results in release of bioactive renin into plasma.
Expression of angiotensinogen
(AGT and natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) mRNA was evaluated in transfected cells following treatment for 6 hr with vehicle, [E.sub.2], or Gen.
Estrogens induce the hepatic production of renin substrate angiotensinogen
with a subsequent increase in angiotensin5.
Renal damage inhibited in mice lacking angiotensinogen
gene subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction.
Alternatively, it is possible that Ang II acts in the brain from a nonneuronal origin; the peptide may be formed from angiotensinogen
in the extracellular fluid and then reaches its receptors via diffusion .
The observation that angiotensinogen
, renin, ACE, and AT1R are expressed in multiple tissues suggests the existence of multiple local RAS, acting as independent entities from the systemic RAS .