[T.sup.R.sub.PK] is the modulation transfer function for SAR, which includes the tilt modulation, hydrodynamic modulation, polarization

angle modulation, range and azimuthal direction modulation, and velocity bunching modulation.

For example, in great value priority, our interspace is [Z.sup.n]; in the case of a transfer function (TF), we have [[0,1].sup.n] and {Space functions} in angle modulation. The second step transforms from the interspace ([Z.sup.n], [[0,1].sup.n], {Space functions}) into abinary space.

The angle modulation technique was applied to network reconfiguration problems in [90] using a binary PSO method.

For the case of angle modulation, there is space to perform binarizations on new metaheuristics, where different variations of angle modulation can be explored.

In this context, feature selection (FS) has been resolved using angle modulation and the set-based approach.

Engelbrecht, "Combining particle swarm optimisation with angle modulation to solve binary problems," in Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC '05), vol.

Chikhi, "Combining bat algorithm with angle modulation for graph coloring problem," in Proceedings of the Symposium on Complex Systems and Intelligent Computing, (Comp SIC '15), 2015.

It covers signal and linear systems analysis, linear modulation techniques,

angle modulation and multiplexing, principles of baseband digital data transmission, an overview of probability and random variables, random signals and noise, noise in modulation systems, principles of digital data transmission, advanced data communications topics, optimum receivers and signal-space concepts, and information theory and coding.

Both frequency modulation and phase modulation fall under the general category of

angle modulation. Frequency modulation is a special case of

angle modulation where the instantaneous frequency of a carrier is varied by an amount proportional to the modulating signal amplitude.