McGeehan, "Simple general formula for pdf of angle of arrival
in large cell operational environments," IEE Electron.
and detects the direction by using the amplitude differences between the antennas depending on the electromagnet waves' angle of arrival
like the figure 3.
Generally, the angle of arrival
is in the range (0: 2[pi]).
Krairiksh, "Dual-band mobile angle of arrival
Theoretically, the caller will be found at the intersection of the two lines of the angle of arrival
Analyzing such signals reveals the angle of arrival
, frequency, pulse width, and any characteristics unique to a transmitter.
1 supports handset-based, network-based, and hybrid locating technologies for 2G and 3G access--specifically, cell identity (CID), enhanced-CID, A-GPS, uplink time difference of arrival (U-TDOA) and multiple range estimation location (MREL) on the traffic channel, and angle of arrival
In this paper, the analytical method of Matrix Pencil (MP) is evaluated for its use in tracking the Angle of Arrival
(AOA) for mobile telecommunication users and the efficiency of this method is compared to the analytical method of ESPRIT.
There are a lot of studies describing positioning using RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication), angle of arrival
(AOA) (Peng and Sichitiu, 2006) or TOF (Time of Flight) (Disha 2013).
SDR MIMO applications range from defense electronics and RF instrumentation to communications infrastructure and include active antennas, transmit beamforming, receive angle of arrival
systems and open-source SDR development projects.
There are four main ranging techniques that can be used for ranging: time of arrival (TOA) , time difference of arrival (TDOA) , angle of arrival
(AOA)  and received signal strength (RSS)  14].
He gives novices the basic principles and applications of positioning, including signal parameters, basics of location, and navigation systems and then covers the spread spectrum (including acquisition, tracking, measurement of elapsed time and propagation time resolution), time transfer (including calibration constants, range uncertainty and ranging procedure in a wireless network), multicarrier phase management (including estimation of distance), received signal strength (including location methods), time of arrival and time difference of arrival, angle of arrival
(including triangulation and antenna arrays), cellular networks (including location technologies, pattern recognition and systems based on handsets or networks), short-range wireless networks and RFID, and ultra-wideband.