In this study, the statistical method of three-factors, five-levels factorial central composite rotatable design has been used to develop mathematical models to correlate angular distortion with multi-pass GMAW process parameters.
"Effects of process parameters on angular Distortion of gas metal arc welded Structural steel plates"--Supplement to the welding journal.
In principle, there are four fundamental types of inherent deformations, namely, longitudinal shrinkage, transverse shrinkage, transverse bending (angular distortion), and longitudinal bending.
The four components are longitudinal shrinkage, transverse shrinkage, longitudinal bending, and transverse bending (angular distortion).
As the result of inverse analysis, each component of inherent deformations, namely, longitudinal shrinkage, transverse shrinkage, longitudinal bending, and transverse bending (angular distortion), is summarized in Table 1.
Based on technical criteria (mold surface covering, fabric drape covering, and fibre angular distortion), this approach can constitute the predimensioning or the preoptimization stage for the manufacturing of complex composite parts.
Another interesting result of the numerical calculation is the angular distortion variations between warp and weft fibres.
The outer most point also has the longest vector length and corresponding highest angular distortion
. The maximum angular error is symbol location dependent, but the phase nois e is a constant for all symbol points.
Angular distortion often occurs in a butt weld when the transverse shrinkage is not uniform along the depth of the plates welded.
For this the extent of angular distortion should be known for a particular set of operating parameters.
For example, the pointed poles of the sinusoidal projection add considerable angular distortion to polar areas, while projections with a polar line, such as the Robinson projection, introduce less shape distortion at poles.
The acceptable area in this example is the area with an angular distortion of less than 30[degrees] and areal distortion between 90% and 111%.