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The notion of subaltern animism is based on the assumption that animal-inclusive critiques of space will render possible new notions of spatial justice, but also, that planning itself can reveal and allow a greater understanding of species-specific needs and vulnerabilities.
Tylor (1871) posits that animism is an attendant factor in any religion and in every culture at any level of development.
In this novel also animism, Islam and Christianity again are layered and interwoven.
Rane Willerslev (2007) is one of these critics, who outlines his problems with Durkheimian approaches in his work on Siberian animism.
Chuquet and Paillard, in a more theoretical, enunciative framework, do not speak of animism but formulate the same idea in terms of the choice of grammatical subject, which they note [C.
Animism is also similar to the ancient Shinto heritage, in which a polytheistic/pantheistic world accommodates an infinite number of kami (gods or deities) as "a natural force or manifestation of energy or life-force within given objects or places, and spirits and signs of spiritual energy within the world" (Reader 2001, 40).
While fetishism turns the given nature into a lifeless world where only the useful is animated, traditional animism and Christian pneumatology perceive the intrinsic value of all beings in their specific environments.
Instead of practicing Buddhism they indulge in animism.
Traditionally, the Hmong people practice a combination of animism and ancestor worship.
The result is a vision of interconnectedness that negates all categorical distinctions, an animism that avoids even the privileging of living over non-living things, which Morton signifies with a strikethrough as "[begin strike through]ani mism[end strike through]" (110).
This sometimes slips into animism and thus a surrogate religion; but the romantics also evince the menace of nature and the monstrous.
Subjectively and psychologically, Lawrence's animism was a participation mystique designed to overcome the mental illusion of separateness, of being on the outside looking on instead of interacting with people, places, and life-forms.