There was massive heterotopic bone development and bony ankylosis
surrounding the right TMJ (Figure 8a), a foreign body giant cell reaction secondary to the previous Proplast/Teflon materials, and a severely limited incisal opening of 20 mm with no translation of the right condyle.
NHO causes pain, decrease in ROM, severe functional restriction (8-10%) and ankylosis
Clinical signs of ankylosis
, such as metallic percussion sound and immobility, were evident.
The high frequency of ankylosis
in reimplanted avulsed incisors together with traumatically induced ankylosis
in experimental animals suggests that trauma to the periodontal membrane may be an aetiological factor.
Patient 1 was a full-term newborn transferred from another institution with a congenital anomaly that suggested ankylosis
of the mandible.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by inflammation of entheses, leading to new bone formation, syndesmophytes, and ankylosis
of joints, primarily in the axial skeleton.
The Brooker classification divides HO into four classes, with class I consisting of islands of bone within soft tissues of any size; class II with bone spurs from the pelvis or femur, leaving at least 1 cm between opposing bone surfaces; class III with bone spurs from the pelvis and femur, reducing the space between opposing bone surfaces to less than 1 cm; and class IV with complete ankylosis
of the hip.
Periapical radiographs confirmed the absence of periapical pathology or ankylosis
and there have been no further complications since (Figure 6).
Arterial anomalies of the middle ear associated with stapes ankylosis
83 Condylar head resorption 0 0 Mandibular fracture 0 0 Bony ankylosis
0 0 Osteophytosis 16 33.
Besides hip ankylosis
, which is a definitive contraindication to hip arthroscopy, as it would preclude intra-articular navigation, (1,26) the contraindications are relative and must be determined on an individual patient basis.
: Dental ankylosis
is thought to be the major aetiological mechanism of IO, [Darling and Levers, 1973; Kurol and Magnusson, 1984], although ankylosis
may be a secondary, rather than an initiating factor in the process.