Every one has heard the story which has gone the rounds of New England, of a strong and beautiful bug which came out of the dry leaf of an old table of apple-tree wood, which had stood in a farmer's kitchen for sixty years, first in Connecticut, and afterward in Massachusetts -- from an egg deposited in the living tree many years earlier still, as appeared by counting the annual layers
beyond it; which was heard gnawing out for several weeks, hatched perchance by the heat of an urn.
A year's worth of snow can be crunched down to form an annual layer
that normally survives hundreds--if not thousands--of years.
However, the differences may be related to the interpretation of the position of the first annual layer
The accessory layers (nonannual), observed between the neonatal line and the end of the GLG of the first year, frequently appear in a very conspicuous manner, especially in the tip of the tooth, and can be easily confused with annual layers
Each annual layer
, known as a varve, contains organic evidence of the earth's climate and ocean temperatures for the year it was deposited, Briskin says.
By analyzing every single annual layer
in the kilometres long ice cores, researchers can get detailed information about the climate of the past.
Properties of solid wood are determined by its structure, namely the different orientation of annual layers
for radial and normal directions, as well as the width and content of medullar rays, but building elements of considerable size, made of wood, characterize the random orientation of annual layers
in relation to their faces and not coincides with the radial and normal directions.
The skeletons are built from chemical components in seawater and grow in annual layers
, like tree rings, so scientists can precisely date when parts of the skeleton formed.
Near the surface, one meter of snow is equal to a year of accumulation, but at greater depths the annual layers
are compressed to centimeters of ice.
Over this timescale, up to 48 explosive volcanic eruptions could be identified in the ice core of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project, which records the deposition of volcanic sulfate in annual layers
Using a hi-tech X-ray mud core scanner, Dr Henry Lamb, of Aberystwyth's Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, and post-doctoral researcher Dr Mike Marshall undertook the painstaking work of counting and characterising the annual layers
in the lake's cores, many of which were too fine to be distinguished by the naked eye.
The researchers counted annual layers
of overlying glacial sediments and used radiocarbon dating to analyze plant fossils at the lake bottom (the last vestiges of the old tundra).
Glaciers record the deposition of snow in annual layers