annual

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Related to annual ryegrass: perennial ryegrass

annual,

plant that germinates from seed, blossoms, produces seed, and dies within one year. Annuals propagate themselves by seed only, unlike many biennialsbiennial,
plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial. In the first year a biennial usually produces a rosette of leaves (e.g., the cabbage) and a fleshy root, which acts as a food reserve over the winter.
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 and perennialsperennial,
any plant that under natural conditions lives for several to many growing seasons, as contrasted to an annual or a biennial. Botanically, the term perennial applies to both woody and herbaceous plants (see stem) and thus includes numerous members of the kingdom.
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. They are thus especially suited to environments that have a short growing season. Cultivated annuals are usually considered to be of three general types: tender, half-hardy, and hardy. Tender and half-hardy annuals do not mature and blossom in one ordinary temperate growing season unless they are started early under glass and are set outdoors as young plants. Hardy annuals are usually sown where they are expected to bloom. Quite often they reseed themselves year after year. Blooming is prolonged by cutting the flowers before the seeds can form. Typical annual flowers are cosmos, larkspur, petunia, and zinnia; annual vegetables include corn, tomatoes, and wheat.

Bibliography

See H. G. W. Fogg, Dictionary of Annual Plants (new ed. 1972).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Annual

 

a plant that completes its life cycle within a single growing season of usually two to five months. The seeds usually sprout in the spring or summer; by autumn (in temperate climates) the plant is bearing fruit and dying. Annuals include flax, millet, buckwheat, spring wheat, corn cockle, and wild oats. Annual plants that develop particularly rapidly are known as ephemerals; they often mature in four to ten weeks. Some annuals, including knapweeds and shepherd’s purse, can survive the winter in the rosette phase if germination occurs late in the season.

Annuals grow only in those regions where they can complete their growth cycle in the period of a single year. Their numbers are greatest in desert areas and fewest in tundras. Annuals are most common where the plant cover is the least dense. In areas where dense plant cover is present, as in meadows, the annuals generally obtain supplementary nourishment through parasitism or symbiosis; these annuals include such hemiparasites as Alectrolophus, eyebright, and cowwheat, as well as such mycotrophic plants as clover, alfalfa, and gentian. As growing conditions worsen (with increasingly higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere or higher elevations in the mountains), the number of annual plants declines. Some species that are not able to complete their life cycle in harsh conditions in one year become perennials; an example is annual blue grass, which becomes a perennial in arctic and alpine settings.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

annual

a plant that completes its life cycle in less than one year
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1996, winter wheat and fall rye immobilized up to 17 mg N [kg.sup.-1] between two to four weeks while annual ryegrass immobilized 21 mg N [kg.sup.-1] between two to eight weeks.
Both annual ryegrass (mean cover = 57.33%, SE = 10.65) and Blando brome (mean cover = 36.06%, SE = 12.58) demonstrated significantly higher cover than Winfred forage brassica (mean cover = 28.28%, SE = 13.22) through time, likely because they have the ability to produce seeds.
Due to its relatively high plasticity (observed by the relatively constant herbage production between 10 to 18.5cm heights, when grazed under continuous stocking; PONTES et al., 2004), the present study assumed the central hypothesis that annual ryegrass pastures allow flexibility in herbage production at a relatively wide range of use under a rotational regime, and that there is a upper limit height for this species where there is a rapid increase in stem elongation rate even during its vegetative growth.
Commercially produced silage classified by forage type and silage preparation Forage type Species Common name Warm-season annual Sorghum bicolor, Forage sorghum, grass Sudangrass, Sorghum x sudangrass hybrids Pennisetum glaucum Pearl millet Warm-season perennial Cynodon dactylon, Bermudagrass grass Paspalum notatum Bahiagrass Annual ryegrass Lolium multiflorum Annual ryegrass Small grain Triticum aestivum, Wheat Avena sativa, Oat Secale cereale Cereal rye Forage type Number of entry by silage preparation (1) Chopped Baleage silage Warm-season annual 86 54 grass Warm-season perennial 21 65 grass Annual ryegrass 266 799 Small grain 4 13 (1) Forage sample as identified by producers.
Couch, previously known as Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr], is a widely distributed filamentous ascomycete infecting more than 50 grasses including rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), St.
Farther north in the Lake Erie region, annual ryegrass is the most used and recommended cover crop, according to John F.
Furthermore, non-leguminous species, such as capeweed (Artotheca calendula) and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum), are major components of pastures in southern Australia (Rossiter 1966).
IN 1980, the first case of selective herbicide resistance in a weed occurred in Australia when resistant annual ryegrass, a major weed of wheat crops, was detected.
* first year corn: overseeded annual ryegrass + red clover (ar/rc);
But planting a green manure can help control those weeds, important if you are breaking ground in a new plot (annual ryegrass, which produces a lot of foliage in a short time, is a good choice for this).

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