Anopheles

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Anopheles:

see mosquitomosquito
, small, long-legged insect of the order Diptera, the true flies. The females of most species have piercing and sucking mouth parts and apparently they must feed at least once upon mammalian blood before their eggs can develop properly.
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Anopheles

 

a genus of the family Culicidae; members are commonly called malaria mosquitoes because they are carriers of Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria in man. Only the females suck blood, feeding mainly on domestic animals and man. A resting anopheline mosquito, in contrast to nonmalarial ones, sits with its abdomen tilted upward and its head and proboscis, thorax, and abdomen forming a straight line.

Malaria mosquitoes develop in water. The eggs, which have floats, are deposited on the water one at a time. The larva has no respiratory tube (siphon) and rests horizontally on the sur-face. At the last molting the larva is transformed into a pupa.

More than 300 species are known, distributed on all the continents, as far north as approximately 65°-66° N lat. There are nine species in the USSR, including the common malaria mosquito (Anopheles maculipennis) and A. superpictus, once the principal carriers of the causative agent of malaria. The common malaria mosquito has four dark spots on the inner parts of its wings. It is distributed widely, as far north as the boundaries of the genus distribution and as far east as Blagoveshchensk. It breeds mainly in shallow, standing waters that are rich in aquatic vegetation. It concentrates close to populated areas and attacks humans predominantly in houses or near dwellings.

Anopheles superpictus has four or five light spots on the anterior edge of the wing. In the USSR it is distributed in Middle Asia and the Transcaucasus. It breeds mainly in small bodies of water and along streams and mountain rivers.

In order to control the malarial mosquitoes, housing for domestic animals and human dwellings are treated with insecticides. Other effective methods include draining the mosquitoes’ breeding areas and improving irrigation systems. To destroy the larvae, kerosene and petroleum are poured into bodies of water, which are also treated with insecticides. Biological control methods are also used, particularly in the Transcaucasus and southern Middle Asia, where waters are stocked with fish (for example, the mosquito fish) that eat mosquito larvae and pupae. Repellents, substances that ward off malaria mosquitoes, are used to protect humans.

REFERENCES

Beklemishev, V. N. Ekologiia maliariinogo komara (Anopheles maculipennis Mgn.). Moscow, 1944.
Pavlovskii, E. N. Rukovodstvo po parazitologii cheloveka s ucheniem o perenoschikakh transmissivnykh boleznei, 5th ed., vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Gutsevich, A. V., A. S. Monchadskii, and A. A. Shtakel’berg. Komary (sem. Culicidae). Leningrad, 1970.

A. V. GUTSEVICH

Anopheles

[ə′näf·ə‚lēz]
(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of mosquitoes in the family Culicidae; members are vectors of malaria, dengue, and filariasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
These parasites are transmitted by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito.
1902: Sir Ronald Ross received a Nobel Prize for identifying the Anopheles Mosquito as the source of the Malaria parasite.
The Anopheles mosquito was beaten back, malaria was controlled, and construction of the canal could continue.
Both indoor residual insecticide spraying and insecticide-treated bednets have been shown to be highly effective for control of the anopheles mosquito vector.
Juss) and to investigate its larvaecidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito.
The malaria parasite or plasmodium is transferred from person to person by the female of certain species of Anopheles mosquito.
Even the best prevention regimen doesn't eliminate the possibility of malaria, so visitors should take steps to prevent exposure by avoiding the source: The Anopheles mosquito.
The parasite which causes the disease is a single-celled organism called Plasmodium falciparum, which is transmitted to humans by the Anopheles mosquito.
An ongoing surveillance and control program is important because the Anopheles mosquito can survive the winter and because there's no way to identify and treat the infected but asymptomatic human reservoir.