Anopheles

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Anopheles:

see mosquitomosquito
, small, long-legged insect of the order Diptera, the true flies. The females of most species have piercing and sucking mouth parts and apparently they must feed at least once upon mammalian blood before their eggs can develop properly.
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Anopheles

 

a genus of the family Culicidae; members are commonly called malaria mosquitoes because they are carriers of Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria in man. Only the females suck blood, feeding mainly on domestic animals and man. A resting anopheline mosquito, in contrast to nonmalarial ones, sits with its abdomen tilted upward and its head and proboscis, thorax, and abdomen forming a straight line.

Malaria mosquitoes develop in water. The eggs, which have floats, are deposited on the water one at a time. The larva has no respiratory tube (siphon) and rests horizontally on the sur-face. At the last molting the larva is transformed into a pupa.

More than 300 species are known, distributed on all the continents, as far north as approximately 65°-66° N lat. There are nine species in the USSR, including the common malaria mosquito (Anopheles maculipennis) and A. superpictus, once the principal carriers of the causative agent of malaria. The common malaria mosquito has four dark spots on the inner parts of its wings. It is distributed widely, as far north as the boundaries of the genus distribution and as far east as Blagoveshchensk. It breeds mainly in shallow, standing waters that are rich in aquatic vegetation. It concentrates close to populated areas and attacks humans predominantly in houses or near dwellings.

Anopheles superpictus has four or five light spots on the anterior edge of the wing. In the USSR it is distributed in Middle Asia and the Transcaucasus. It breeds mainly in small bodies of water and along streams and mountain rivers.

In order to control the malarial mosquitoes, housing for domestic animals and human dwellings are treated with insecticides. Other effective methods include draining the mosquitoes’ breeding areas and improving irrigation systems. To destroy the larvae, kerosene and petroleum are poured into bodies of water, which are also treated with insecticides. Biological control methods are also used, particularly in the Transcaucasus and southern Middle Asia, where waters are stocked with fish (for example, the mosquito fish) that eat mosquito larvae and pupae. Repellents, substances that ward off malaria mosquitoes, are used to protect humans.

REFERENCES

Beklemishev, V. N. Ekologiia maliariinogo komara (Anopheles maculipennis Mgn.). Moscow, 1944.
Pavlovskii, E. N. Rukovodstvo po parazitologii cheloveka s ucheniem o perenoschikakh transmissivnykh boleznei, 5th ed., vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Gutsevich, A. V., A. S. Monchadskii, and A. A. Shtakel’berg. Komary (sem. Culicidae). Leningrad, 1970.

A. V. GUTSEVICH

Anopheles

[ə′näf·ə‚lēz]
(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of mosquitoes in the family Culicidae; members are vectors of malaria, dengue, and filariasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Anopheline larvae were found in different types of habitats and occurred in man-made and temporary habitats with high population density.
In the absence of the nuisance of mosquitoes biting, people tend to cease using bed nets because of an erroneous assumption that very low anopheline populations would not pose a significant risk of malaria (Pulford et al.
Anopheline mosquitoes were colonized in large cages provided with cotton pads soaked in 10% sugar solution.
In Pakistan there are 24 anophelines species (Mehmood et al.
pseudopunctipennis in the countries of America and provided information related to the larval habitats, including other species of anopheline larvae.
Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: What are the implications for malaria control?
Das BP, Rajagopal R and Akiyama J (1990): Pictorial Key to the species of Indian Anopheline mosquitoes.
Although the Kruskal-Wallis test did not point to a difference among P1, P2 and P3 with all species, the difference with the totals of anopheline and culicini between P1 x P2 ([chi square] = 0.
Ilustrated key to the female Anopheline mosquitoes of Central America and Mexico.
On the adult bionomics of some Indian Anophelines with special reference to malaria control by pyrethrum spraying.
Electrophoretic method for recognition of sibling species of anopheline mosquitoes) A practical approach.
These Culex pipiens--unlike malaria-bearing anophelines that thrive after rains--breed abundantly in the shallow pools of organically rich water that remain in drains during dry spells.