antagonism

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antagonism

1. Physiol the normal opposition between certain muscles
2. Biology the inhibition or interference of growth of one kind of organism by another

Antagonism

 

a form of contradiction characterized by acute, irreconcilable struggle of hostile forces or tendencies. The term “antagonism” in reference to the struggle of opposing forces is used in religious systems (struggle of good and evil) by Kant, Schopenhauer, and other philosophers. The term is applied to biology and mathematics (game theory) in the same sense. Marxism, analyzing the antagonism between classes in slave-owning, feudal, and capitalist societies and in the transitional period from capitalism to socialism, has shown that antagonisms are resolved by means of the class struggle, whose forms and content are determined by the concrete, historical conditions of their development. K. Marx noted that bourgeois relations of production are the “last antagonistic form of the social process of production . . .” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch. 2nd ed. vol. 13, p.7). V. I. Lenin emphasized that “antagonism and contradiction are not one and the same thing. The former will disappear, but the latter will remain under socialism.” (Leninskii sbornik, XI, 1929, p. 357.)

L. M. NAUMOV

antagonism

[an′tag·ə‚niz·əm]
(biology)
Mutual opposition as seen between organisms, muscles, physiologic actions, and drugs.
Opposing action between drugs and disease or drugs and functions.
References in periodicals archive ?
But if he had lived long enough to witness it today, he would be manifestly affirmed in his observations about our pro-colonial dispensation, our built-in contradictions and antagonisms.
These conquests also further inflamed the east-west antagonisms that had initially been a part of the overall mixture of the area.
Despite everything, however, it is frightening to see how, even today, the same antagonisms are still in place: the lack of trust between buyers and growers; poor communication along the chain; and little understanding of each other's needs.
The diplomatic sanctions against Libya resulted in a tightening of the regime's control, social problems and inter-regional antagonisms.
organization occupying the same coffee house certainly doesn't fit accounts of the antagonisms between the groups expressed in many contemporaneous accounts.
He stresses the role of capitalism in the growth and maintenance of racism in both countries and the inability or unwillingness of working class groups to confront racial antagonisms.
Mutualisms have always gotten much less attention than antagonisms like competition or predation.
Vouchers--and I cannot emphasize this enough--would destroy public education; increase educational costs while lowering net educational quality; gradually replace democratic education with sectarian and ideological indoctrination; fragment our society along religious, ethnic, social class, and other lines; and awaken dormant antagonisms.
Basically, it's this: The kids get a canful of Mom and Dad's mutual antagonisms, so they just lock 'em up until they can sort out their differences.
Written by professional trial lawyer and history expert John Remington Graham, Blood Money: The Civil War and the Federal Reserve is a scholarly and studious examination of an oft-neglected aspect of the American Civil War--how the great international banking houses augmented the pre-existing antagonisms between North and South, how the Federal Reserve came to be created, and the negative legacies of public debt following the Civil War.