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1. Physiol the normal opposition between certain muscles
2. Biology the inhibition or interference of growth of one kind of organism by another
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a form of contradiction characterized by acute, irreconcilable struggle of hostile forces or tendencies. The term “antagonism” in reference to the struggle of opposing forces is used in religious systems (struggle of good and evil) by Kant, Schopenhauer, and other philosophers. The term is applied to biology and mathematics (game theory) in the same sense. Marxism, analyzing the antagonism between classes in slave-owning, feudal, and capitalist societies and in the transitional period from capitalism to socialism, has shown that antagonisms are resolved by means of the class struggle, whose forms and content are determined by the concrete, historical conditions of their development. K. Marx noted that bourgeois relations of production are the “last antagonistic form of the social process of production . . .” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch. 2nd ed. vol. 13, p.7). V. I. Lenin emphasized that “antagonism and contradiction are not one and the same thing. The former will disappear, but the latter will remain under socialism.” (Leninskii sbornik, XI, 1929, p. 357.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Mutual opposition as seen between organisms, muscles, physiologic actions, and drugs.
Opposing action between drugs and disease or drugs and functions.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is axiomatic that antagonisms are bound up with configurations of power and force--if X and Y are antagonists in a relation of aversion or hostility towards each other, then X and Y transmit and receive forces accordant with aversion of hostility, even if these are merely ideational or verbal.
If Autonomism is to succeed now, Berardi argues, the Left must understand the form and nature of the antagonism that exists in contemporary capitalism, namely semiocapitalism (or informational capital)--the predominance of the technological instrumentalization of immaterial signs as the principal objects of contemporary capital production and appropriation.
These conquests also further inflamed the east-west antagonisms that had initially been a part of the overall mixture of the area.
The diplomatic sanctions against Libya resulted in a tightening of the regime's control, social problems and inter-regional antagonisms. The proposed framework for the trial by the U.S.
organization occupying the same coffee house certainly doesn't fit accounts of the antagonisms between the groups expressed in many contemporaneous accounts.
Distance, competition, struggle for dominance, and outright antagonisms sometimes developed.
He stresses the role of capitalism in the growth and maintenance of racism in both countries and the inability or unwillingness of working class groups to confront racial antagonisms. This lack of change or abandonment of civil rights he views as damaging to labor, but his solution is not for any sweeping changes from upper governmental levels.
"Mutualisms have always gotten much less attention than antagonisms like competition or predation."
Vouchers--and I cannot emphasize this enough--would destroy public education; increase educational costs while lowering net educational quality; gradually replace democratic education with sectarian and ideological indoctrination; fragment our society along religious, ethnic, social class, and other lines; and awaken dormant antagonisms.
In short order, decorum has given way to yawns, undignified mugging, petty antagonisms - and finally full-scale slapstick.
Written by professional trial lawyer and history expert John Remington Graham, Blood Money: The Civil War and the Federal Reserve is a scholarly and studious examination of an oft-neglected aspect of the American Civil War--how the great international banking houses augmented the pre-existing antagonisms between North and South, how the Federal Reserve came to be created, and the negative legacies of public debt following the Civil War.