In the same systematic review, 9 RCTs with 313 patients compared topical antihistamines (levocabastine, azelastine hydrochloride, emedastine, and antazoline
phosphate) with placebo.
Since then many sclerosants have been tried like 2.5% phenol, portwine, quinine, urethane, 3% STDS, ethanolamine oleate, talc, antazoline
, polidacanol and of late tetracycline with varied results.
Topical antihistamine/sympathomimetic combination drops, such as antazoline
0.5% and xylometazoline 0.05%, are available over the counter but are only effective in the short-term (seven days) owing to potential rebound hyperaemia with longerterm use.