Stutzman (Virginia Tech, emeritus) introduces the mathematical representations of polarization states in electromagnetic systems, and applies the concepts to antenna polarization
, interaction of a wave with an antenna, dual-polarized systems, and depolarization of waves in media.
To effectively describe such inconsistency between the channel polarization and the propagation path, we propose an extended definition of on-body antenna polarization
in full-space dimension relative to the skin, which are vertical tangential (denoted as Z-direction), horizontal tangential (denoted as H-direction), and horizontal normal (denoted as V-direction), as described in Figure 1(c).
Received powers on the location A, B, and C were measured with X (horizontal) and Y (vertical) antenna polarization
Generally, the axial ratio is considered to determine antenna polarization
. Antennas are circularly polarized if the value of the axial ratio is less than 3 dB, and for an ideal circularly polarized antenna the axial ratio should be 0 dB.
At the final point we validated the antenna polarization
. The antenna's 3D pattern at center frequency is as shown in the Figure 6.
Wolniansky, "Effect of antenna polarization
on the capacity of a multiple element system in an indoor environment," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol.
Zhang, "Equivalent relations between interchannel coupling and antenna polarization
coupling in polarization diversity systems," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol.
The signal blockage is dependent on the antenna polarization
. For vertical and horizontal polarizations, signal blockages are different for backward and side radiations.
Overview of Radiated Emissions Requirements Frequency Range 10 kHz to 18 GHz (MIL-STD-461), 30 to 1,000 MHz (EU/FCC) Antenna Separation 1,3, 10, or 30 meters, depending on the specification, obstructions, and RF ambient levels Antenna Height 1 to 4 meters Antenna Type 41 in active rod: 10 kHz to 30 MHz; biconical: 30 to 300 MHz; log-periodic: 300 to 1,000 MHz; double-ridged waveguide horns: 1 to 18 GHz Antenna Polarization
Vertical and horizontal for frequencies > 30 MHz Detection Function Peak or CISPR quasipeak depending on the specification In the laboratory, this test normally is performed with the EUT located on a turntable.
The term "antenna polarization
" refers to the orientation of the electric field.
Reisert, "Antenna Polarization
Application Note," Astron Wireless Technologies Inc., 2002.