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see teethteeth,
hard, calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaws of vertebrates that perform the primary function of mastication. Humans and most other mammals have a temporary set of teeth, the deciduous, or milk, teeth; in humans, they usually erupt between the 6th and 24th
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One of the structures found in the mouth of most vertebrates which, in their most primitive form, were conical and were usually used for seizing, cutting up, or chewing food, or for all three of these purposes. The basic tissues that make up the vertebrate tooth are enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp (see illustration).

Structure of a toothenlarge picture
Structure of a tooth

Enamel is the hardest tissue in the body because of the very high concentration, about 96%, of mineral salts. The remaining 4% is water and organic matter. The enamel has no nerve supply, although it is nourished to a very slight degree from the dentin it surrounds. The fine, microscopic hexagonal rods (prisms) of apatite which make up the enamel are held together by a cementing substance.

Dentin, a very bonelike tissue, makes up the bulk of a tooth, consisting of 70% of such inorganic material as calcium and phosphorus, and 30% of water and organic matter, principally collagen. The rich nerve supply makes dentin a highly sensitive tissue; this sensitivity serves no obvious physiological function.

Cement is a calcified tissue, a type of modified bone less hard than dentin, which fastens the roots of teeth to the alveolus, the bony socket into which the tooth is implanted. A miscellaneous tissue, consisting of nerves, fibrous tissue, lymph, and blood vessels, known as the pulp, occupies the cavity of the tooth surrounded by dentin.

The dentition of therian mammals, at least primitively, consists of four different kinds of teeth. The incisors (I) are usually used for nipping and grasping; the canines (C) serve for stabbing or piercing; the premolars (Pm) grasp, slice, or function as additional molars; and the molars (M) do the chewing, cutting, and grinding of the food. Primitively the placentals have 40 teeth and the marsupials 50.

In therian mammals, probably because of the intricacies and vital importance of tooth occlusion, only part of the first (or “milk”) dentition is replaced. This second, or permanent, dentition is made up of incisors, canines, and premolars; as a rule only one premolar is replaced in marsupials. Although the molars erupt late in development and are permanent, that is, not replaced, they are part of the first, or deciduous, dentition.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


One of a series of carved ornaments, typically a pyramidal shape or a four-petal flower, usually set in a concave molding band; used in the Romanesque and Gothic Revival styles. See also: Ornament
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


One of the hard bony structures supported by the jaws in mammals and by other bones of the mouth and pharynx in lower vertebrates serving principally for prehension and mastication.
(design engineering)
One of the regular projections on the edge or face of a gear wheel.
An angular projection on a tool or other implement, such as a rake, saw, or comb.
(graphic arts)
The coarse or abrasive quality of a paper or a painting ground that assists in the application of charcoal, pastels, or paint.
A paper texture that holds ink more readily.
(invertebrate zoology)
Any of various sharp, horny, chitinous, or calcareous processes on or about any part of an invertebrate that functions like or resembles vertebrate jaws.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. In a paint film, a fine texture imparted either by pigments or by the abrasives used in sanding; this texture provides a good base for the adhesion of a subsequent coat of paint.
2. A dogtooth, 2.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. any of various bonelike structures set in the jaws of most vertebrates and modified, according to the species, for biting, tearing, or chewing
2. any of various similar structures in invertebrates, occurring in the mouth or alimentary canal
3. any of the various small indentations occurring on the margin of a leaf, petal, etc.
4. any one of a number of uniform projections on a gear, sprocket, rack, etc., by which drive is transmitted
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The bonded lingual retainer and multiple spacing of anterior teeth. Swed Dent J Suppl 1982; 15: 247-55.
The displacement of anterior teeth of group C was more uniform than that of groups A and B (Table II).
Distribution of patients reporting pain through the days Anterior teeth Posterior teeth Days Morning Evening Morning n % n % n 1st day 16 25.80 12 19.35 32 2nd day 20 32.25 24 38.70 42 3rd day 22 35.48 24 38.70 38 4th day 28 45.16 22 35.48 36 5th day 26 41.93 20 32.25 34 6th day 18 29.03 18 29.03 34 7th day 18 29.03 20 32.25 28 Days Evening % n % 1st day 53.54 34 54.83 2nd day 67.74 38 61.29 3rd day 61.29 40 64.51 4th day 58.06 36 58.06 5th day 54.83 36 58.06 6th day 54.83 30 48.38 7th day 45.16 30 48.38 %: Percentage of patients reporting pain, n: Number of patients reporting pain Table 4.
King, "A simplified technique for the restoration of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth," Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, vol.
Traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth among South Kanara school childrena prevalence study.
dos Santos and Maia (21) reported that in their placement of anterior teeth restorations, the use of a silicone index was an effective method to create the anatomic form and to increase clinical success.
In anterior teeth, the most popular material for pulpotomy was FS (GD: 33%; PD: 45%), followed by MTA (GD: 33%; 26%), diathermy (GD: 11%; PD: 13%) and formocresol (FC) (GD: 11%, PD: 10%).
Coronal coverage did not significantly improve the success of endodontically treated anterior teeth. This finding supports the placement of crowns on posterior teeth that cover sufficient coronal tooth structure to prevent fracture when occlusal forces attempt to separate the cusp tips.
In our study it was found that majority of the caries were in anterior teeth and upper jaw as compared to posterior and lower jaw.
rEsin-BondEd fiBEr-rEinforcEd coMpositE for dirEct rEplacEMEnt of Missing antErior tEEth: a clinical rEport, sufyan garoushi, lippo lassila, pEkka k.
The prevalence of pain in the maxillary anterior teeth, mandibular anterior teeth, maxillary posterior teeth and mandibular posterior teeth was as 52.2%, 55%, 88.2% and 90.3%, respectively.

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