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see teethteeth,
hard, calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaws of vertebrates that perform the primary function of mastication. Humans and most other mammals have a temporary set of teeth, the deciduous, or milk, teeth; in humans, they usually erupt between the 6th and 24th
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One of the structures found in the mouth of most vertebrates which, in their most primitive form, were conical and were usually used for seizing, cutting up, or chewing food, or for all three of these purposes. The basic tissues that make up the vertebrate tooth are enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp (see illustration).

Structure of a toothenlarge picture
Structure of a tooth

Enamel is the hardest tissue in the body because of the very high concentration, about 96%, of mineral salts. The remaining 4% is water and organic matter. The enamel has no nerve supply, although it is nourished to a very slight degree from the dentin it surrounds. The fine, microscopic hexagonal rods (prisms) of apatite which make up the enamel are held together by a cementing substance.

Dentin, a very bonelike tissue, makes up the bulk of a tooth, consisting of 70% of such inorganic material as calcium and phosphorus, and 30% of water and organic matter, principally collagen. The rich nerve supply makes dentin a highly sensitive tissue; this sensitivity serves no obvious physiological function.

Cement is a calcified tissue, a type of modified bone less hard than dentin, which fastens the roots of teeth to the alveolus, the bony socket into which the tooth is implanted. A miscellaneous tissue, consisting of nerves, fibrous tissue, lymph, and blood vessels, known as the pulp, occupies the cavity of the tooth surrounded by dentin.

The dentition of therian mammals, at least primitively, consists of four different kinds of teeth. The incisors (I) are usually used for nipping and grasping; the canines (C) serve for stabbing or piercing; the premolars (Pm) grasp, slice, or function as additional molars; and the molars (M) do the chewing, cutting, and grinding of the food. Primitively the placentals have 40 teeth and the marsupials 50.

In therian mammals, probably because of the intricacies and vital importance of tooth occlusion, only part of the first (or “milk”) dentition is replaced. This second, or permanent, dentition is made up of incisors, canines, and premolars; as a rule only one premolar is replaced in marsupials. Although the molars erupt late in development and are permanent, that is, not replaced, they are part of the first, or deciduous, dentition.


One of a series of carved ornaments, typically a pyramidal shape or a four-petal flower, usually set in a concave molding band; used in the Romanesque and Gothic Revival styles. See also: Ornament


One of the hard bony structures supported by the jaws in mammals and by other bones of the mouth and pharynx in lower vertebrates serving principally for prehension and mastication.
(design engineering)
One of the regular projections on the edge or face of a gear wheel.
An angular projection on a tool or other implement, such as a rake, saw, or comb.
(graphic arts)
The coarse or abrasive quality of a paper or a painting ground that assists in the application of charcoal, pastels, or paint.
A paper texture that holds ink more readily.
(invertebrate zoology)
Any of various sharp, horny, chitinous, or calcareous processes on or about any part of an invertebrate that functions like or resembles vertebrate jaws.


1. In a paint film, a fine texture imparted either by pigments or by the abrasives used in sanding; this texture provides a good base for the adhesion of a subsequent coat of paint.
2. A dogtooth, 2.


1. any of various bonelike structures set in the jaws of most vertebrates and modified, according to the species, for biting, tearing, or chewing
2. any of various similar structures in invertebrates, occurring in the mouth or alimentary canal
3. any of the various small indentations occurring on the margin of a leaf, petal, etc.
4. any one of a number of uniform projections on a gear, sprocket, rack, etc., by which drive is transmitted
References in periodicals archive ?
The prevalence of tooth pain after root canal treatment is influenced by anatomic position of the tooth so that the pain in the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth is more common than in anterior teeth.
The morphology of the remaining teeth, especially the anterior teeth, is characterized by conically-shaped lateral incisors or cuspids and barrel-shaped central incisors.
The most common problem in the failure of root canal therapy is a lack of coronal seal, which is more severe in anterior teeth compared to posterior teeth.
In addition, an impression of the facial surfaces of the unprepared anterior teeth can be made to show how the anterior teeth look, by having the patient occlude the teeth, and placing fast-setting bite registration material on the facial surfaces of both the mandibular and maxillary anterior teeth (Fig.
His mandibular anterior teeth exhibited moderate attrition as well as the lingual surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth.
Initial impressions were taken, and mounted on a semi-adjustable articulator; a second wax-up was made for maxillary anterior teeth.
They found that tongue piercing can be an important causative agent in the development of gingival recession of the lower anterior teeth and was also associated with dental trauma in molars.
It was thought interesting to see whether the caries in the study subjects was mainly on the anterior teeth around the cleft site [Bokhout et al.
Dental veneers, also known as porcelain laminate veneers or composite veneers, are thin layers of restorative porcelain or composite resin, custom-designed to fit over anterior teeth to improve their shape, color and overall appearance.
The bite plane is oriented so that the patient's anterior teeth occlude as close to the end of the bite plane as is practical, and the two insertion holes at the end of the bite plane are located at or just anterior to the mouth opening.
The Y-ME Curette features a distinctive anterior curette design with precise modifications to increase access and reach, perfect for challenging debridement needs of anterior teeth, furcations, line angles and pedodontic dentition.
The presence of excessive labio-axial inclination of the anterior teeth was considered as proclination and as anterior open bite when the anterior teeth in the maxilla did not occlude those in the mandible.

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