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(ăn`thrəsīt'): see coalcoal,
fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter. Types

There is a complete series of carbonaceous fuels, which differ from each other in the relative amounts of moisture, volatile matter,
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humic coal of a high degree of metamor-phism. With a microscope plant residues can be discerned.

Anthracite is black, often with a grayish shade, with an occasional spotty iridescence. It gives a velvety black line on a porcelain plate. Its luster is high and metallic. It is highly viscous, does not sinter, and conducts electricity well. It has a strong, metallic luster. Its highest hardness on the mineralogical scale is 2.0–2.5; its density of organic mass is 1,500–1,700 kg/m3. Heat of combustion of organic mass is 33.9–34.8 megajoules per kg (8,100–8,350 kcal/kg). Anthracite has a low analytical moisture content of 1–3 percent, and its combustible mass contains up to 9 percent volatiles, 93.5–97.0 percent carbon, 1–3 percent hydrogen, and 1.5–2.0 percent oxygen and nitrogen. Anthracite containing more than 97 percent carbon in the combustible mass is called superanthracite. According to the volume yield of volatiles, it is divided into two commercial grades: semianthracite, containing 220–330 liters per kg, and anthracite as such, with a volume yield below 220 liters per kg.

Anthracite occurs in the form of beds of different thicknesses, usually intermediate and thin—rarely up to 10–40 m thick—in deposits of many geological systems from the Devonian to the Triassic. The total anthracite deposits are comparatively small and amount to approximately 3 percent of the world’s coal reserve. The largest quantity of anthracite is located in the USSR (the Donets and Kuznets basins, for example). Considerable anthracite deposits exist in China and the USA. Anthracite is used as a high-quality energy-producing fuel (according to its uses, a distinction is made in industry between gas-generating anthracite and anthracite for the production of calcium and carbide) and also in the manufacture of electrodes and semiconductors. Special grades of anthracite which do not crack during combustion are used in casting and blast furnace processes.


Ammosov, I. I., and Tan Siu-i. Stadii izmeneniia uglei i parageneticheskie othosheniia goriuchikh iskopaemykh. Moscow, 1961.
Zhemchuzhnikov, Iu. A., and A. I. Ginzburg. Osnovy petrologii uglei. Moscow, 1960.



A high-grade metamorphic coal having a semimetallic luster, high content of fixed carbon, and high density, and burning with a short blue flame and little smoke or odor. Also known as hard coal; Kilkenny coal; stone coal.


a hard jet-black coal that burns slowly with a nonluminous flame giving out intense heat. Fixed carbon content: 86--98 per cent; calorific value: 3.14 × 107--3.63 × 107 J/kg
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AIM is optimistic that the partnership will provide them with robust relations for anthracite with the global market.
Despite being surrounded by abundant anthracite coal, the works was importing bituminous coal up the Swansea Canal to make coke for use in its single blast furnace.
Anthracite output in the EU also fell from a rate of 128 million tonnes in 2012 to 114 million tonnes in 2013.
Silk seersucker suit, BRIONI OPPOSITE: Royal Oak Leo Messi limited-edition self-winding chronograph with steel case, tantalum bezel, brushed anthracite dial, and anthracite strap, AUDEMARS PIGUET.
Anthracite produced in this field can easily be transported to Qing-Huang-Dao (the largest coal port in China), Tianjin (the largest anthracite port in China) or Jing-Tang (supplemental to Qing-Huang-Dao).
Hard anthracite coal, unlike bituminous, also entailed intensive above-ground processing (in coal breakers) and a diverse work force comprised most operations.
The chemical composition and strength characteristics of iron melted with calcined anthracite are comparable to the same properties of iron melted with conventional cupola fuels, the only concession being the need for higher wind box pressure.
The company said December 21 that, should it put its acquisition of another still-unidentified Pennsylvania anthracite miner into motion, it could sizably increase its reserve portfolio.
In contrast, he said, anthracite prices "have held up well and we will be raising the prices of all our anthracite grades by $10 a ton" in October "to take advantage of the healthy market for anthracite as we move into what is traditionally our best period of the year for both sales volumes and prices.
Blaschak Coal Corporation today announced that it has completed the acquisition of a processing plant and secured long-term rights to mine high-quality anthracite coal in Latimer, PA.
is expanding mining activities into two new locations in the anthracite coal measures of northeastern Pennsylvania.