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(ăn`thrəsīt'): see coalcoal,
fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter. Types

There is a complete series of carbonaceous fuels, which differ from each other in the relative amounts of moisture, volatile matter,
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humic coal of a high degree of metamor-phism. With a microscope plant residues can be discerned.

Anthracite is black, often with a grayish shade, with an occasional spotty iridescence. It gives a velvety black line on a porcelain plate. Its luster is high and metallic. It is highly viscous, does not sinter, and conducts electricity well. It has a strong, metallic luster. Its highest hardness on the mineralogical scale is 2.0–2.5; its density of organic mass is 1,500–1,700 kg/m3. Heat of combustion of organic mass is 33.9–34.8 megajoules per kg (8,100–8,350 kcal/kg). Anthracite has a low analytical moisture content of 1–3 percent, and its combustible mass contains up to 9 percent volatiles, 93.5–97.0 percent carbon, 1–3 percent hydrogen, and 1.5–2.0 percent oxygen and nitrogen. Anthracite containing more than 97 percent carbon in the combustible mass is called superanthracite. According to the volume yield of volatiles, it is divided into two commercial grades: semianthracite, containing 220–330 liters per kg, and anthracite as such, with a volume yield below 220 liters per kg.

Anthracite occurs in the form of beds of different thicknesses, usually intermediate and thin—rarely up to 10–40 m thick—in deposits of many geological systems from the Devonian to the Triassic. The total anthracite deposits are comparatively small and amount to approximately 3 percent of the world’s coal reserve. The largest quantity of anthracite is located in the USSR (the Donets and Kuznets basins, for example). Considerable anthracite deposits exist in China and the USA. Anthracite is used as a high-quality energy-producing fuel (according to its uses, a distinction is made in industry between gas-generating anthracite and anthracite for the production of calcium and carbide) and also in the manufacture of electrodes and semiconductors. Special grades of anthracite which do not crack during combustion are used in casting and blast furnace processes.


Ammosov, I. I., and Tan Siu-i. Stadii izmeneniia uglei i parageneticheskie othosheniia goriuchikh iskopaemykh. Moscow, 1961.
Zhemchuzhnikov, Iu. A., and A. I. Ginzburg. Osnovy petrologii uglei. Moscow, 1960.



A high-grade metamorphic coal having a semimetallic luster, high content of fixed carbon, and high density, and burning with a short blue flame and little smoke or odor. Also known as hard coal; Kilkenny coal; stone coal.


a hard jet-black coal that burns slowly with a nonluminous flame giving out intense heat. Fixed carbon content: 86--98 per cent; calorific value: 3.14 × 107--3.63 × 107 J/kg
References in periodicals archive ?
Ghasemi said, We are delighted to deepen our cooperation with one of Chinas leading energy groups, Shanxi Jincheng Anthracite Coal Mining, on this significant coal-to-clean energy project.
Both men recognised the enormous but untapped potential of the anthracite coal seams of the region and Crane funded experiments by David Thomas to try and smelt iron using anthracite.
He will be AEXE's representative in China and will be working to develop the market for our Anthracite Coal and Feldspar reserves.
Abundance of high quality PCI, coking and anthracite coals
When Keating (1937-2006) retired from construction work and truck driving in the early 1990s, he redoubled the time and energy he was spending as a historian and preservationist of the anthracite coal industry, founding the Anthracite Living History Group and the Avondale Disaster Site Preservation Committee.
The contributions collectively promote the value of regional history for exploring this area of Pennsylvania and individually address such topics as religion and German settlers, the cultural background of Scottish and Irish settlement, the development of Moravian industrial technology in Bethlehem from the middle of the 18th century to the early 19th century, religious conflict and violence in German communities during the Great Awakening, the rise of newspaper politics, the industrial transformation of the Lehigh River, the rise of Bethlehem Steel, and gender and economic decline in the anthracite coal region from 1920 to 1970.
The roots of this story of industrial decline and death lie in Pennsylvania's ancient anthracite coal fields, the cradle of American industry and labor organization, amidst the vaunted prosperity of the 1920s.
This region contains the largest known deposit of anthracite coal in the
Popular replacements in this application are anthracite coal and causticized lignite.
The scheme involves the Jincheng Anthracite Coal Group Co.
156,6 567,0 PT Indah Kiat 213,2 303,4 243,1 117,9 PT Golden Sari 13,2 13,6 15,2 6,9 Coal briquette projects 36,7 37,0 37,8 16,7 Other 58,1 32,6 27,4 10,7 Lumut Coal (LMC): PT Cakrawala Tata 28,6 144,9 -- -- PT Indo Cement 256,3 160,6 105,0 -- PT Semen Baturaja 62,3 26,6 71,5 41,2 Other Anthracite Coal (ANC): PT Timah 13,2 12,4 10,6 4,3 PT Aneka Tambang 21,8 5,0 -- -- CV Bangun Arta 20,8 8,4 10,5 4,3 Other Mining Unit of Ombilin 581,5 595,2 438,7 184,0 (UPO) Total domestic sales 9.
First, the anthracite coal mining that had been the bedrock of the region's economy began to decline in the 1930s.